Goethe's Love in His Later Years and "Marianne's Poems"

   Marianne Junke is a native of Linz, Austria, and lived a gypsy-style performance life in a theater company with her poor mother since childhood. As a young actress, in this troupe, Marianne often "sings, dances, performs little dances, and plays the role of a playful girl. She can also perform stunts on horseback: emerge from flowers, or wear a clown mask from out of the egg" (Emile Ludwig, "Goethe"). In 1798, at the age of nearly 15, Marianne was adopted by Goethe Frankfurt's old friend, the privy counsel, banker and writer Mr. Willie Mayer, in order to give her a good education, "actually, from his mother. buy her there” (Emile Ludwig, Goethe). She really got a good education and became a talented girl who is interested in music, can sing, write poetry, and play the guitar, and she is more lovely and more beautiful every year. Towards the age of forty, Mr. Willie Meier was widowed for the second time, and began to please his adopted daughter and won her love, but "it was not until September 1814 that between the 54-year-old Willie Meier and the now 30-year-old Mr. The union between the Mariannes was only legalized for a longer period of time" (Hans Jurgen Geerz, "Goethe") - "Nine days after Goethe's arrival, Willie Mayer envoys. Marianne, who belonged to him for many years, became his rightful wife" (Emil Ludwig, "Goethe"), and Marianne officially became Marianne von Willimer. Because in this year, the 65-year-old Goethe met for the first time this gentle, affectionate, sexy, willful, smart and lovely woman like a blooming flower. spark. As a precaution, Mr. Willie Meier had to end his long-term cohabitation relationship and legalize the relationship between Marianne and himself. In the spring of 1815, Goethe returned to his hometown again, met again with Marianne, and was so excited that he wrote several poems. "The culmination of the meeting was later in August when Gabe Miller, who lived in Williemere, was a few happy weeks together. In September in Heidelberg, Goethe met Marianne again. Then Goethe He freed himself, as he usually does in emotional confusion." (Hans-Jurgen Geertz, "Goethe")

  In the ardent love, the old Goethe was full of passion, and his ideas flowed, and he wrote nearly 20 poems, such as "It's Not Opportunity to Create Thieves...", "Your Love Makes Me Happy...", "I Canoe in Euphrates" "River...", "I'm happy to help you in this dream." "Even if this statement is correct...", "You bound me with curly hair...", "I never want to lose you...", "To the East Wind", "To the West Wind", "Reunion", "As You Go" Various poses, hidden forms and invisible...", "Let Me Cry...", "The Night of the Full Moon...", "Accept the Favor of Your Beautiful Eyes...", "Books", etc., which constitute the "Marianne Poems" . In this way, Goethe's love in his later years and Marianne's poems became an important part of his famous poetry collection "West-East Collection" in his later years.

  The first feature of "Marianne's Poems" is the combination of East and West. During this time, Goethe was deeply reading and studying Eastern poetry, especially Persian poetry, with a particular interest in Hafez. Therefore, he orientalized his love with Marianna, imagining himself as the oriental poet Hatem, and Mariana as the oriental beauty Suleika, using their love to express his love, and at the same time to hide people's eyes. . Specifically, the oriental characteristics of the group poems are manifested in two aspects.

  First of all, there are a lot of oriental features in this group of poems that express love directly from the West, such as "I am boating on the Euphrates...": "I am boating on the Euphrates, / That ring you recently gave me, / it It slipped gently from my fingers, / and sank into a deep ravine under water.// Ah, it was a dream. The dawning light / Through the trees, dazzled my eyes. / Say it, poet, say it , Prophet! / How will this dream come true?" Since Goethe has a wife and Marianne has a husband, although the two are in love, it is impossible to become a husband and wife. Therefore, the poet in love is very worried about the prospect of their love. In the middle, he lost his lover's dream of losing his lover's new ring by rafting on the eastern river - the Euphrates in Persia, and vaguely expressed his worries about the future breakup; another example is "Sultan has this ability...": "Sultan has this ability, he can conclude a contract / This supreme couple of heaven, / In recognition of the one-in-a-hundred talents, / and the loyal and brave soldiers among his servants. / / Let it also be a portrayal of our happiness! / It makes me see me and you again, / You call I will be your sun, dear, / Come on, bright moon, and hold me together!" The poet pretended to be commended by the eastern emperor Sultan, and in his poems legitimized the love between himself and his lover, and hoped that the sun and the moon would be in harmony with his lover. hug tightly. Another example is "To receive the favor of your beautiful eyes...": "To receive the favor of your beautiful eyes, / Get close to your lips, your breasts, / Listen to your beautiful voice, / It was so much fun for me.//Yesterday, alas , for the last time, / Then the lights went out; / I endured all kinds of pain, / The debt of love is too heavy. / / If Allah is not kind, / Let us meet again, / The sun, the moon, and the world / All can only make me more sad." People in love want to be together all the time, but they are afraid of separation, and Goethe, because he fell in love with a friend's wife, can only meet in secret, and is often separated. Therefore, he vividly described his suffering of separation, and prayed to the god of the east, Allah, to bless him to meet his lover again.

  Secondly, in the poems, he virtualized himself as the oriental poet Hatem, and turned Marianna into the oriental beauty Suleka, and confided his love to his heart's content, such as "Even if this statement is correct...": "Even if this statement is true True, / But I have my own opinion: / All my happiness is in / You, Suleika. / / You give me my whole body, / I feel my worth; / When you leave me he , / I will lose myself at once.// Now Hatem is no more, / I have changed my fate: / I have gladly become / Your tender lover.// I do not want to be a rabbi again , / but would like to become Feidussi, Montanabi, / or at least an emperor." The poet clearly tells his lover that all his happiness is concentrated in her, and that he is at once lost of himself when he is separated from her. her tender love, then he immediately felt that he was the Persian poet Fiduciary, Montanabi, or at least an emperor, not an ascetic Rabbi. Another example is "Let Me Cry...": "Let me cry, surrounded by night, / In the boundless desert. / The camel herd has rested, and the camel driver has rested, / Only the Armenians are awake Reckoning; / I lay beside him too, calculating / The distance that separates me from Suleika, over and over, / The twists and turns of the long journey come to my mind. / Let me cry! There is no shame in crying. / A man who can cry is good. / Achilles wept, / Xelxes wept, / For the boy who died by suicide, / Alexander the Great wept. / Let me cry! Tears It can moisten the dust. / It has poured into my eyes." Poetry transforms itself into Hatem, a far-flung oriental, weeping for parting from his beloved Suleika, and recounts the hero Achilles in Western history , Xerxes, and Alexander the Great testify that the man who can cry is the most affectionate and the best. In "You Bind Me With Your Curly Hair...", the poet declares himself as Hatem, he feels the lover's curly hair binds him, and from the lover's tenderness, he realizes the warm breath of spring and the fiery heat of summer Feelings, so much that I am willing to burn as much as possible for this, even at the expense of burning to ashes!

  The second feature of the poems is the combination of men and women. Marianne's poems are different from Goethe's other love poems, and also different from other famous poets' love poems in the world. A notable feature of this group of poems is that this group of poems is not only created by Goethe alone, but also by Marianne herself. The love song co-created in love can be called a masterpiece of men and women.

  Of course, the most important of which is Goethe's own creation, which not only has the lyricism of the above-mentioned oriental characteristics, but also the lyricism of the Western-style love process. For example, "It is not chance that makes thieves...": "It is not chance that makes thieves, / Chance itself is the greatest thief; / There is not much left of love in my heart, / It steals them all. / / It steals all Love to you, / I have lost all meaning of life, / Now I am destitute, / It is up to you to live.// However, in your bright eyes / I have felt pity for me, / in In your tender embrace / I have enjoyed a new life." This is the work of the two when they were just in love. The poet entered old age and felt that there was not much love left in his heart, but opportunity stole them all and gave them away My lover, so that he felt that he was already destitute, and it was a question whether he could survive. Fortunately, you have responded, both pity me and embrace me in a tender embrace, which made me feel that I have a new life. Another example is "Your love makes me so happy...": "Your love makes me so happy, / How can I curse chance; / Even if it has stolen from you, / Such stealing makes me happy! / / Where Still need to steal! / You are free to choose me; / I am very happy to believe--/ I stole your love. / / You voluntarily gave me everything / Will bring you a good reward, /I am willing to give my peace, /My life, please take it!//What do you say we are already poor!/Love does not make us richer?/To hold you in my arms, /What happiness is there with This comparison!" Soon, the two fell in love, and the poet felt very happy, no longer cursed the opportunity, and even felt that the stealing of the opportunity made him happy, and declared that he was willing to sacrifice his peace and even his life for the lover, because love makes him particularly rich , very happy! On this basis, "Let's do whatever you like, hide and hide..." sang the lover's beauty and expresses his fanatical love. And "The Night of the Full Moon..." changes the perspective: "Madam, why are you talking to yourself? / What makes you lightly part your lips? / How cute are you to keep talking softly, / It's more beautiful than drinking fine wine. Delightful! / Do you want to tease another pair of lips / Come close to them again and again?// 'I want to kiss! Kiss! I say.'//Look, in the twilight of the night, / All the branches emit Bright, / The constellations wink at the world; / In the thickets, like green gems, / Thousands and thousands of fireflies float: / But you have no heart for everything.// 'I want to kiss! Kiss! I say.' //Your lover, who is far away/ also tastes sweet and sour,/ Feels a kind of unfortunate happiness;/ You two have sworn a holy vow,/ To be on the full moon Greet each other when the moon is full, / Isn't that the moment now? //'I want to kiss! kiss! I say. '" The poet pretended to ask Marianna to have a conversation with her maid, showing the agreement between the two before they parted in Heidelberg: when the moon is full, they miss and bless each other, and they also express their fiery love and deep affection. "Reunion" expresses the parting. The joy and happiness of the reunion of lovers, and the love and joys and sorrows between men and women are explained and recited in the big frame formed by the universe, thus making it a magnificent and profound love philosophical poem. ..." expresses this in a symbolic way: "The sun is out! Magnificent and brilliant! /The new moon hugs the sun tightly. / Who can form this beautiful couple? /How to solve this mystery? how? The reunion of the new moon and the sun symbolically expresses the joy of reuniting with the lover. "Er Split Ginkgo Biloba" even divides the two split ginkgo leaves into two, expressing the relationship with the lover: "I am me, It's me and you again."

  Marianne's writing makes this collection of poems a truly masculine and feminine piece. German scholar Geertz pointed out in his "Goethe Biography" that when the two fell in love and after their breakup, "Marianne was more impacted, and the lady, when she was with the person who inspired her creativity, unexpectedly Can create poems worthy of Goethe's beauty, and these poems were included in the Suleika Scroll without an attribution by Goethe... An unusual thing happened: Goethe, in order to prove their commonality, took the poems written by Marianne He added stanzas to his own writing. . Apart from a few stanzas, at least two poems were written by Marianne. One is "To the East Wind": "Why am I so excited? / The east wind that brings me good news comes, / It gently flaps its wings, / Soothes my physical and mental pain. / / It plays with the dust intimately , / sent it to the clouds in the sky; / it made the safe shade of grapes, / flocked with dancing insects. / / it cools my burning cheeks, / it soothes the heat of the scorching sun, / it hurries across the mountains , / And kisses the gleaming grapes.// Its soft whispers bring me/ Kind inquiries from friends, / Before the mountains become dark, / I will sit down under his knees.// So you may Leave me! / To serve the joyful and the sorrowful. / I shall soon find my darling, / where the walls burn in the sunset.// Ah, the good news that I long for, / Fresh life, love His breath, / can only come from his mouth, / can only come from his breath." "To the West Wind": "O your wet wings, / West wind, how jealous I am: / You can carry him Message, / Telling him parting makes me miserable. / / The vibration of your wings awakens / The quiet longing in my breast, / Flowers, eyes, woods and hills / make you blew with tears.// And yet you are gentle The blowing / cools my aching eyelids; / alas, I shall die of grief, / no hope of seeing him again. / / fly quickly to my lover, / comfort his heart softly; / But don’t mention how much I am in pain, / Lest he be troubled and sad. / / Tell him, but be humble and gentle, / His love is my life; / Only by his side can I / enjoy life and love happily.” (All the above translated poems can be found in the first volume of Goethe Collected Works, translated by Yang Wuneng, Hebei Education Publishing House, 1999) Imaginatively, vividly, delicately and vividly, he expresses his sincere love, and his artistic appeal and artistic achievements are indeed It is not under Goethe. If you don't explain it, you can't really see that it is not Goethe's creation.



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