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Black Song and Dance: Tomba Francesa

   "La Tumba Francesa" means "French drum". It is a song and dance of a black community prevalent in southeastern Cuba.

  From the 16th to the 19th century, about 10 million African slaves were trafficked to the Americas. From the end of the 17th century, French colonists drove black slaves to grow sugar cane and coffee for them in Haiti. Under the influence of the French Revolution, Haiti broke out in 1790 to overthrow French colonial rule and abolish slavery. Later, some black slaves in Haiti moved to the southeastern part of Cuba Island one after another, and lived in a concentrated community. In the coffee farms on the outskirts of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo, Haitian black immigrants (also known as Creoles) often gather to entertain themselves with songs and dances, which gradually evolved into "Tumba Francesa". At that time, black people also formed some club-like "Tumba Francesa" associations in some cities in eastern Cuba. Towards the end of the 19th century, the popularity of "Tumba Francesa" reached its peak. Today, only three "Tumba Francesa" societies survive in the Oriente region.

  "Tumba Francesa" is an art form of singing and dancing, which is a combination of traditional dance popular in France in the 18th century and black music melody in Dahomey, West Africa.

  Their enthusiastic performances often continued into the night. They sing in a French or Spanish dialect. The band accompanies percussion instruments such as a triangle and three "tumbas" drums.

  The rhythm of the drumming is similar to that of a modern conga. The dance moves are inspired by the 17th-century French Michele Minuet and other great French dances. The performance of "Tumba Francesa" has won international awards. 


  Cambodian court dance, also known as "Khmer Classical Dance" and "Ritual Dance". Cambodia has been deeply influenced by Brahmanism and Buddhism in history, so its classical dances also have strong religious colors. This dance has a history of more than a thousand years and has been revered by generations of royal families. Especially in the Angkor Dynasty from the 9th to the 13th century AD, dance, like architecture, sculpture, poetry and other cultural arts, reached a highly prosperous heyday.

  The Royal Ballet is usually performed at the coronation of kings, weddings, funerals and Khmer festivals. In the melodious sound of traditional music, the graceful girls in the flower season, dressed in bright national costumes, wearing golden helmets with pointed tops, and several golden bracelets on their arms and ankles, performed the main changes of worshipping with palms together. Various actions. Experts pointed out: Cambodian court dance has two characteristics: first, the dance language is very rich, the dance is elegant and graceful, wide and comfortable, the movement is quiet, the stillness is dynamic, and it is expressed through clear and symbolic gestures. Pain, joy, anger, doubts and other complex emotions; the second is to use singing to explain the development of the plot and the meaning of the dance.

  There are many Royal Ballet programs, mainly including: "Blessing Dance", "Fairy Dance", "Fan Dance", "Butterfly Dance", "Sword Dance", "Sea Dragon Dance" and dance dramas "Ramayana", "Pei" "The Legend of Lashan", "Leimu Esso and the Dance of Moni McCalla", "The Myth of Berea Kinnaphon", "The Battle of the Black Monkey and the White Monkey", etc.

  "Fairy Dance in the Garden of Hundreds" (also known as "The Dance of Absala"), especially became the main program of court dance. In the large-scale reliefs of Angkor monuments built in the 9th century, the artistic images of the dancing fairy Absala and her six maids can be seen everywhere. Their artistic modeling has been preserved in the traditional Cambodian dance art. The Cambodian court dance art is the treasure of the Cambodian people and an enduring wonder in the world's dance art garden. 


  About a quarter of Britons have "dangerous drinking habits" and the number of people being treated in hospital for alcohol-related reasons has risen sharply from five years ago, according to a NHS survey. Increase.

  According to the survey statistics, 33% of men and 16% of women in the UK have a dangerous drinking habit, which may cause physical or mental harm. In particular, 6% of men and 2% of women have problems after drinking, and their drinking is classified as "harmful drinking".

  In addition, the number of people in hospital in the UK for alcohol reasons rose to 863,300 in 2007, an increase of 69% over 2002. The number of deaths due to drinking as a direct cause was 6,541, an increase of 19% since 2001.

  The British government spends 2.7 billion pounds every year on medical expenses for injuries and illnesses caused by alcohol, which has become a heavy financial burden for the government.


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