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"Jane Eyre" has been valued by critics since its inception

  The traditional review centers on Jane, but there are very few comments on Bertha, who is hidden in the cold and dark attic of Thornfield Manor. These only comments are also Often simplistic and sloppy: "Either marginalize it and keep it out of the center, foreshadowing and foil the central character, or demonize it with labels like 'devil', 'vampire', 'mad woman' ', 'abandoned woman', 'pervert' and other heinous labels." It was not until the rise of feminism that Bertha was reinterpreted from a feminist perspective. The book "The Mad Woman in the Attic," co-authored by Gilbert and Kuba, opened a "skylight" in Bertha's dark attic, and Bertha entered from the dark attic in the image of a female accuser within people's sight. She is also interpreted as the expression of the feminist thought of the female writer: "The image of the mad woman is in a sense a copy of the female writer, a projection of the writer's own anxiety and madness, spiritual oppression and division. , female writers not only want to realize their crazy desire to escape from male houses and male texts, but also have difficulty getting rid of the inferiority complex in the process, so they do not create a romantic strong woman but a witch and a devilish mad woman. Emotional catharsis." From a feminist point of view, the image of the mad woman has indeed improved to a large extent, but looking at the writings of the mad woman since 1979, it is possible to jump out of the nest of feminist criticism and There are few treatises built on other theoretical cornerstones. The interpretation of Bertha is far from exhaustive, and Mr. Fang Ping pointed out bluntly; "The image of the mad woman has become a secret code hidden in the work, and the information she stores is composed of multiple meanings: both human psychology It has a sociological meaning, and it has a religious and moral concept." Bertha's image code indeed hides a lot of information that is not known now. Here, I only learn from Flo Ide's perspective of psychoanalysis, through the re-discussion of Bertha, demonstrates Bertha's position in the works.

  

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  In a large number of feminist works, Bertha is seen as the embodiment of Jane's soul or her alter ego. In "The Mad Woman in the Attic", Bertha is interpreted as Jane's soul. "Literally, the ghost that haunts Thornfield Manor at night is Bertha Mason Rochester, but on an allegorical and psychological level this creepy ghost is Jane's soul incarnate. What Bertha did It is exactly what Jane is thinking and looking forward to." As Mr. Fang Ping said, "It turns out that the mad woman is the dark side of the heroine's soul, the flame of anger hidden in her body, and her alter ego." From this perspective, the feminist interpretation and the psychoanalytic interpretation coincide, and the "other self" mentioned by Mr. Fang Ping can be understood as the "id" based on the principle of pleasure in Freud's psychoanalytic viewpoint. ". Because Freud once clearly pointed out: "It is also a very convenient way to interpret spiritual contradictions by the formation of symptoms, which is most in line with the spirit of the principle of pleasure: because symptoms can save the patient's mental pain." The disease is a typical manifestation of the symptoms, so Bertha, who appears as a mental patient and a lunatic, has become an ideal spokesperson for the pleasure principle, that is, the "id". She is crazy and happy, and the destructive consequences of any of her crazy actions will not cause her any mental pain, and as long as she is happy, it can do anything. In essence, Bertha also has a strong resistance, and each of her appearances is related to resistance, which is similar in spirit to the heroine Jane. In this regard, Jane can be understood as Bertha's " Self", the two realize the combination of personalities in spirit. Although Jane can strongly resist the inequalities imposed on herself, she lives in a real rational world after all, and any resistance she resists is under the control of reason and must obey the morality and laws of the society she lives in. Although she resists, she can clearly recognize this point, so her resistance is limited. From this aspect, Jane is realistic, a "self" living in a rational world. Jane's strong resistance has been suppressed under the limitation of this degree, and this crazy resistance repressed in her subconscious needs a reasonable way of venting, which cannot be found in the rational world, but not in the rational world." The id "because there is no restriction to vent the repressed anger in the heart, so Bertha, who hides in the dark attic and appears as a "mad woman", becomes the "self" living in the real rational world - Jane's " I". Bertha's identity of the "id" hidden behind the "self" is also expressed through Jane's dreams. "Dreams

  

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  Bertha is the "id" hidden behind Jane as the "self", not only in the abstract aspect of spiritual resistance, but also in the fact. "The 'ego' has a tendency to exert external influences on the 'id'", therefore, through this tendency Jane as the 'ego' is connected with Bertha as the 'id', and Jane's external Influences are expressed in Bertha in tortuous and subtle ways. Although Bertha is a mysterious mad woman from beginning to end in the novel, the proportion is very low, and there are few opportunities to appear, but her every laugh, every appearance, every action has a profound meaning.

  Bertha's first appearance in the novel is unheard of, but her "most tragic, unbelievable" laugh is enough to terrify anyone. At this time, Jane had just arrived in Thornfield and entered a completely unfamiliar environment. Her mood was restless, and she wanted to find someone to express her feelings aloud, but this wish in the unfamiliar Thornfield was cannot be satisfied. It was at this moment that Bertha the "I" responded to the call with a tragic laugh as if hearing the voice of Jane of the "I". Bertha, who appears for the second time, pulls Jane into Rochester's relationship with a fire in the middle of the night. At this time, Jane had adapted to Thornfield's life and gradually fell in love with her master, willing to "sorrow for his sorrow". She really wanted to have further contact with him, but she didn't have this opportunity, let alone create it in an irrational way. Bertha's fire made Jane the savior of Rochester, and Jane's wish came true. It's worth noting: On the night Bertha set the fire, Jane was awakened by a strange and tragic muffled murmur, and her door "seemed to be touched, as if someone was groping in the dark aisle outside. , as if her finger had touched the door." Obviously, this was Bertha passing Jane's room on the way to Rochester's room, and her finger touched the door. Why did Bertha's fingers touch Jane's door when she was walking? The reasonable explanation is: Bertha, as Jane's "id", understands the subconscious thoughts of "ego". Since "ego" cannot realize its own wishes due to the limitation of the principle of reality, the "id" under the control of the principle of pleasure To help "self", Bertha's finger on the door is a reminder to "self" - quickly seize the opportunity to save Rochester. Bertha's third appearance was when Jane was ridiculed and despised by Miss Ingram and other upper-class people at the manor banquet in Thornfield, and she was also in her heart because of the inequality and discrimination imposed on herself. The treatment felt angry, but as "self" she couldn't find a way to vent her anger comfortably. So Bertha appeared frantically, and she stabbed her brother with the knife in her hand, stabbing the person who restricted her movement. Bertha's appearance this time not only vented her anger, but also brought Jane's relationship with Rochester one step closer, and the grievances Jane suffered at the banquet were indirectly compensated. Bertha's fourth appearance was on the eve of Jane's wedding, when she broke into Jane's bedroom and shredded her gorgeous and delicate veil. As a young girl from a poor background, Jane did not like her too gorgeous and delicate veil. Although she didn't like it, she would not and could not tear up the veil, and this thought in her subconscious was realized through Bertha, her "I". Throughout the novel, Bertha It is destructive, she hurts everyone who is close to her, but she doesn't touch Jane who is about to marry her husband, even the faces of the two are facing each other, and she doesn't try to hurt Jane. Obviously not in line with her consistent destructive behavior, but since she is Jane's "self", she is the same person as Jane. No matter how crazy this person is, she will not hurt herself or Jane. Bertha, who appeared for the fifth time, finally lifted the veil of mystery and had her own legal identity - Rochester's hair-bearing wife. Bertha's appearance in this identity is also related to Jane: although Jane loves Rochester and is willing to be his wife, she subconsciously believes that her "Cinderella" identity and status are not equal to Rochester, and she is very independent as a woman. of women have a hard time accepting this inequality, and even thought of postponing their marriage. And Bertha gave Rochester's wife the best and most reasonable reason to postpone the wedding, so the wedding was postponed according to Jane's subconscious thoughts. But Jane loved Rochester after all and was willing to be his wife. Although Bertha's wife status helped Jane postpone the marriage, it also became the biggest obstacle to Jane's marriage. At this time, Jane's subconsciousness hoped that Rochester would be single. In order to realize the wish of the "self", the "id" chose to sacrifice his life without hesitation: in the raging fire of Thornfield, Bertha resolutely chose death and sacrificed her life to the happiness of the "self", At the same time, the fire destroyed Thornfield Manor, destroyed Rochester's body, and burned all Rochester's capital overlooking Jane, so all the obstacles in Jane's subconscious marriage with Rochester were reduced to ashes in the fire, and she finally became Rochester's happy bride. The identity and status of "Cinderella" is unequal to that of Rochester. As an independent woman, it is difficult for her to accept this inequality, and she even thought of postponing her marriage. And Bertha gave Rochester's wife the best and most reasonable reason to postpone the wedding, so the wedding was postponed according to Jane's subconscious thoughts. But Jane loved Rochester after all and was willing to be his wife. Although Bertha's wife status helped Jane postpone the marriage, it also became the biggest obstacle to Jane's marriage. At this time, Jane's subconsciousness hoped that Rochester would be single. In order to realize the wish of the "self", the "id" chose to sacrifice his life without hesitation: in the raging fire of Thornfield, Bertha resolutely chose death and sacrificed her life to the happiness of the "self", At the same time, the fire destroyed Thornfield Manor, destroyed Rochester's body, and burned all Rochester's capital overlooking Jane, so all the obstacles in Jane's subconscious marriage with Rochester were reduced to ashes in the fire, and she finally became Rochester's happy bride. The identity and status of "Cinderella" is unequal to that of Rochester. As an independent woman, it is difficult for her to accept this inequality, and she even thought of postponing her marriage. And Bertha gave Rochester's wife the best and most reasonable reason to postpone the wedding, so the wedding was postponed according to Jane's subconscious thoughts. But Jane loved Rochester after all and was willing to be his wife. Although Bertha's wife status helped Jane postpone the marriage, it also became the biggest obstacle to Jane's marriage. At this time, Jane's subconsciousness hoped that Rochester would be single. In order to realize the wish of the "self", the "id" chose to sacrifice his life without hesitation: in the raging fire of Thornfield, Bertha resolutely chose death and sacrificed her life to the happiness of the "self", At the same time, the fire destroyed Thornfield Manor, destroyed Rochester's body, and burned all Rochester's capital overlooking Jane, so all the obstacles in Jane's subconscious marriage with Rochester were reduced to ashes in the fire, and she finally became Rochester's happy bride.

  It can be seen that Bertha's activities are all related to Jane. Everything Jane wants to do in her subconscious but can't do it herself is done by Bertha. Bertha is another Jane. She hides behind the real Jane and secretly helps Jane realize her wish.

  

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  Bertha , as Jane's "I", hides behind Jane, and is not limited to the spiritual connection between the two and the literal meaning of the text. The repeated images in the novel also show this. Freud once pointed out: "An experience which, for a very short period of time, has caused the mind to be highly stimulated and has been unable to seek adaptation by normal means, thereby permanently disturbing the effective power of the mind, we call this experience Traumatizing." Jane's greatest traumatic experience was not her tragic orphan life, nor her ordeal at Gateshead House and Lawward School, but her aunt's punishment at the age of ten and being locked up in the "Red House". thing. "Darkness and living alone are the first things children feel afraid of." It was in the dark "red house" that Jane Eyre experienced the two most terrifying things for children, "darkness" and "living alone". This painful horror The experience had a formative effect in her consciousness, and even as she grew up, the experience was etched deep into her psyche and remained in her subconscious. The typical reappearance of this painful experience in her subconscious is the "dark room" on the top floor of Thornfield Manor, which is where Bertha was confined. The traumatic experience in the "red house" affects the choice tendency of the "ego", and the "dark house" similar to the "red house" becomes the hiding place for the "id" to choose. Also linked to Jane's traumatic childhood experience is the recurring imagery of "fire" in the text. The typical color of the "red house" is red, and this red tone remains in Jane's subconscious, and red is also the color of fire, so red is associated with fire in Jane's subconscious. And the red lurking in the subconscious of the "self" is manifested in the form of fire in the "id". The image of "fire" is an indispensable element in the novel, and its role is also crucial. Several important appearances of "I" Bertha are related to "fire", and the realization of "I" Jane's wishes also depends on Because of these "fires", the last fire that Bertha put on at the curtain call not only burned away all obstacles to the union between the two, but also brought a dramatic change in their relationship. In this marriage, Jane, who inherited the property, has With enough capital to look down on Rochester that used to look down on himself.

  To sum up, Bertha is not a mad woman in a simple sense, she is a huge code hidden in the works. Through the interpretation of this code, we can find that she and Jane are actually different parts of the same personality. Jane's "self" appeared, hidden behind Jane's back, through her actions, the "self" in the rational world - everything Jane's subconscious to do was done by Bertha.


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