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Cool buildings in world famous schools

   When it comes to university, words such as sacred, rigorous and vigorous may pop up in most people's minds. In fact, when the university was born, it was far more solemn than it is now. In the thousands of years of development of the university, it has been wandering between God and the earth, and therefore has left countless and beautiful buildings...

"There is a city in the university"


  The early universities were formed gradually, and people would not deliberately set up a university according to special decrees, such as the University of Paris and the University of Oxford. The emergence of these universities is incredible, but they have not only existed, but have existed and developed for nearly a thousand years in this ever-changing world. So some people say: The so-called university is actually the result of the natural evolution of society.

  Most of the medieval universities maintained a close relationship with the church at the beginning of their birth. This can be seen in the early buildings that are still preserved today.

  Walking into the University of Oxford or the University of Paris, you can see many academic buildings, which make extensive use of the structures, shapes and architectural styles formed in church buildings. These halls are mostly built with masonry materials, with thick walls, several layers of rectangular windows, and features such as turrets and dormer windows.

  Of course, the historic universities today are not just those old Gothic buildings, but mostly present as a collection of various architectural and historical styles. Some buildings are in the style of the early Renaissance, and some are of the high Renaissance, such as the majestic and solemn Romanesque, the baroque with strange techniques, and the delicate and complicated Rococo, all of which are integrated into the medieval style. the main campus environment. While reflecting the continuation of European architectural culture, it also presents people with the historical accumulation and dignified sense of university culture.

  Oxford is like this. Since buildings of different styles in different periods are well preserved, this ancient world-famous university is like a picture scroll of vicissitudes of history and modern civilization. Those quaint, solemn and elegant college buildings are now the treasures of Oxford University, and more than 600 buildings have been listed as cultural relics. Some people commented on Oxford: This is a huge museum of British architectural history, and it is a living museum. There are still people living in it, living the modern life of the 21st century.


Some people commented on Oxford: This is a huge museum of British architectural history, and it is a living museum. There are still people living in it, living the modern life of the 21st century.


  Not only Oxford University, but the entire city of Oxford is quaint. Those buildings belong to different architectural schools in different historical eras, and they make up the whole city. To appreciate the quintessence of Oxford architecture, go to Kafasta. The building at the corner of Cornmarket and Queen Streets is the only remnant of St. Martin's Church. Dating back to the 11th century AD, this church has long been the most important religious center in Oxford. Queen Elizabeth I also visited here to hold religious ceremonies.

  Edward, the eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, came to Oxford in 1859 and became the first Crown Prince to enter the university, later Edward VII. No one knows if he climbed to Cafasta overlooking the city when he was in Oxford, but St Martin's Church still stood at that time. Later, due to the safety of the building structure and the road widening project, the church and the fountain were demolished one after another. Today, only the Cafasta remains, as a witness to the Church of St. Martin.

  If you climb up the 99 steps, climb to Kafasta, and look down at the whole city, you will find that the classical buildings of Oxford University are actually scattered throughout the small town. Oxford is such a university, with no gates, no walls, or even an official signboard. The street passes through the campus, and 39 colleges are distributed throughout the city. The campus is the city, the city is the campus, and the city and the university are integrated.


Those quaint, solemn and elegant college buildings are now the treasures of Oxford University, and more than 600 buildings have been listed as cultural relics.

"There are universities in the city"


  It's not just Oxford that has a perfect combination of city and university. If Oxford is "a city in a university", then Bologna in Italy is "a university in the city".

  The city of Bologna is a little cramped, the buildings are not high, it is not as charming as Paris, not as historic as Rome, but it is very stocky. The colors of the exterior walls of every building on the roadside are like George Morandi's oil paintings, earth red, yellow-gray, and purple-gray. It feels elegant yet. Among these hues, numerous academy buildings are hidden. Most of these buildings are in the style of the Renaissance. Walking through them, surrounded by red brick and stone arcades, a kind of vicissitudes of thousands of years is coming.

  Since the high Middle Ages, Bologna has been an important cultural center with a high reputation in Italy and even the whole of Europe. However, the University of Bologna, the "mother of universities" in Europe, does not have its own campus, and the school seems to be completely "embedded" in the city.

  Built in the 16th century, the Palazzo Acikinacio was part of the University of Bologna, where since 1563 many scholars have studied logic, astronomy, medicine, philosophy and arithmetic. Entering the hall from the exquisite and solemn door, looking up, there are rows of family crests of European aristocrats hanging on the top wall of the corridor. These coats of arms, painted, carved, or sculpted, represent that the children of the noble families have been educated in this university for generations, and also show the noble blood of this university. Interestingly, the stairs of the Archikinacio Palace are also exquisite. This is because in the early days, the University of Bologna was known for its jurisprudence and art.


  The University of Bologna is old, but not conservative. Ulisse Aldrovandi laid the foundations of the natural sciences, Gaspare Tagliakozzi pioneered plastic surgery, and Marcello Malbiqui taught human anatomy Research... Thanks to their efforts in Bologna, medicine has advanced tremendously.
  The "Anatomy Theater" in the University of Bologna is the world's first anatomy room. It is a semi-underground room without windows. The interior of the room is decorated with ornate wooden partitions. It is an amphitheatre like a small theater. The seats of the students from high to low surround the white stone platform in the middle of the room, and the stone platform is surrounded by wooden railings. In the world's first dissection room, there stands a statue of a doctor holding a nose - this is the first place in Europe to perform plastic surgery for people. European aristocrats in the Middle Ages were very concerned about their noses, and there were very few cities that could do plastic surgery. The reason is very simple: plastic surgery is based on human anatomy. Only by mastering anatomy can students learn to be The technique of the aristocratic "fixing the nose".
The glory of the Berlin campus

  In 1810, the University of Berlin, known as the "Mother of Modern Universities" by later generations, quietly opened. This new university has had royal blood since its inception, and this is also reflected in its architecture. Today, when we walk into Humboldt University and Free University of Berlin, we can still feel their former glory.
  The predecessor of Humboldt University was the University of Berlin, which was founded in 1810. After the university was completed, it was regarded as a milestone in the history of German education and an epoch-making symbol of world higher education. Until the outbreak of World War II, it was the center of world scholarship, and countless people came here to work or study.
  The history of Humboldt is integrated into the street under the Linden Tree. This boulevard, which is only 60 meters wide and 1,400 meters long, was built in 1573. It was first used as a riding road for nobles to go out for hunting. By 1647, King William I of Prussia ordered the planting of linden trees on both sides of the road, so the avenue has its current name.
  For a long time, Unter den Linden has been generally regarded as a symbol of the Kingdom of Prussia, just as Downing Street is in England and the Champs Elysees is in France. A large number of government agencies are distributed on both sides of the road. In 1740, Frederick the Great opened Frederick's Square at the easternmost end of the avenue, which is today's Bebel Square, and built the Opera House, the Old Library, and St. Hedwig's Cathedral. and other buildings. Humboldt University is also embedded on one side of this street.
  Standing in front of the main building of Humboldt University in the shape of a "concave", it is like facing the royal castle of the European Renaissance. Palace of King Inrich. In order to found the university, Frederick William III donated the palace as a school building. For this reason, the University of Berlin was originally called "Frederick Wilhelm University".
  Two statues stand quietly, just in front of the main building, they are the two founders of the University of Berlin - brother Wilhelm von Humboldt and brother Alexander von Humboldt.
  At the Battle of Jena in 1806, Prussia was devastated by Napoleon's French army and forced to sign the humiliating Treaty of Tilsit, ceding nearly half of its territory, most of which was Prussia's richest and most fertile In part, in addition, a number of schools including Halle University also have new ownership with the cession of the location. Just when King Frederick Wilhelm III was distressed by the loss of Halle University, a delegation of university teachers from Halle, led by law professor Schmalz, came to Berlin and asked the king to allow them to rebuild here. own university.
  Frederick Wilhelm III readily agreed to their request, not only donating the palace of King Heinrich as a school building, but also dispatching the diplomat Wilhelm von Humboldt, a former envoy to Rome, as the Secretary of Culture and Education of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. long, involved in the founding of the new university. In this way, the University of Berlin was born.
  Under the drastic reforms of Wilhelm von Humboldt, the establishment of the University of Berlin not only added a university, but created a new concept of university education. At the University of Berlin, teachers not only impart knowledge, but also guide students' ways of thinking; students are not simply receivers of knowledge, but also researchers who explore truth together with teachers.
  The Free University, which was split from the University of Berlin after World War II, also used some of the buildings of the Royal Society of Wilhelm, named after the German Emperor Wilhelm II, while building new campus buildings.
  Perhaps for historical reasons, the Free University of Berlin calls for academic and intellectual freedom, and the serious academic atmosphere coupled with the lively architectural environment is the original design concept of the designers of the Free University Complex.
  The Liberty University complex was designed by renowned architect Shadra Woods. Woods believes that today's living space can no longer be considered in three dimensions, but must be given a four-dimensional dimension, and time must also be reflected in architecture. He believes that a house is a miniature city, and a city is a giant house. This mix is ​​known as the "clear maze." It was during this period that the inherently designed university campuses according to the concept of "bright city" began to be gradually rejected by people, and people believed that the various departments and departments of the university should not be too far apart. Woods recognizes this very well, and through architecture, it strengthens the communication between students of various disciplines and presents a city on the university campus. Liberty University's complex is designed in this direction.
  Just like the designer's concept, each department of Liberty University is open, and the departments are also transparent and barrier-free, and no identification system is required to enter. The first floor is the main activity space, the second floor is the office area, and the basement is the storage space. The activity area is represented by the three primary colors of red, yellow and blue, and the rest area is represented by the two colors of purple and green. Some people may question: Europeans and Americans attach great importance to privacy. In such a fully open building, where is the private space between students and teachers? Of course, the designer will not ignore these completely. In the farther aisles, there is a quiet and private office environment, which is suitable for desk work.
  Interestingly, this comprehensive building was constructed in two phases: the first phase used corten steel with its own corrosion, which rusted into dark red over time, called "rust building"; the second phase used silver. The white aluminum plate is called "Silver Building". Two buildings, one red and one white, stand in it, with obvious contrast and distinctive features.
Wandering between history and modernity

  In 1877, the first national university in Japan, the University of Tokyo, was formally established. Today, Dongda University has become a world-renowned research-oriented national comprehensive university and enjoys a high reputation around the world. Some people say that the history of Dongda University is actually a modern history of Japan. Starting from Chimen, the buildings, bronze statues, ponds, flowers and trees are actually in the long history of Dongda University for more than 100 years. A thick or light stroke.


  There is a fixed expression in Japanese folklore - "stepping into the red gate". For the Japanese, no matter how poor a young man's family is or how humble his background is, as long as he can step into that red gate, it is enough to ensure that he has a rich life.
  This red gate is a genuine vermilion gate located at No. 3-1, 7-chome, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo. Akamon is the gate of the Hongo Campus of the University of Tokyo on the side of Hongo Street. It is the symbol and symbol of the highest university in Japan. However, this red gate, which was built in the Edo period and has a strong classical atmosphere, is not the main gate of the University of Tokyo. The main gate of the East University is a simple iron gate north of the red gate, which is inconspicuous. The main entrance is so low-key that there is no school name sign, only traffic signs tell pedestrians: This is the University of Tokyo.
  The architectural style of Chimen is very similar to the traditional Chinese hanging hilltop buildings. It is solemn and solemn, this is the first feeling of Chimen.
  The central axis is symmetrical on the left and right, and the surrounding corridors are connected. Together with a series of architectural elements on the roof and eaves, it shows the influence of Chinese culture on Japan. However, Japan has a strong sense of self, which is not inferior to the Chinese elements in the embodiment of Chimen. While the ancient Chinese archway gates emphasized more on decoration and did not hesitate to weaken the structural function of the components, Japan did the opposite, and even simplified the decoration and formed its own style. The architectural components of Chimen are structural components, which are directly exposed, and the material itself is part of the decoration. This can be said to be the Japanese advocating the simple, simple and natural architectural style, and it can be said to be the key reason why the same type of imperial gates have been destroyed in the 200-year history, and only the red gate can be preserved to this day. In the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923, Chimon suffered only minor shingles and suffered little damage. This is due to the "top-heavy" building structure of Chimen, which is resilient and successfully withstands the destructive force of the earthquake.
  Every year before the university entrance examination, there will be candidates who come to visit Chimen in order to ensure their luck in the examination. And there is always a report on the TV news about the release of this year's candidates by the University of Tokyo. Everyone is well aware that in Japan, where competition is intense and the tutoring culture is prevalent, the winners and losers have paid for their efforts in order to "step into the red door".
  Some people joked: Famous universities all have a famous pond, just like Peking University has Weiming Lake, Tokyo University has Sanshilang Pond. The so-called Sanshilang Pond, formerly known as "Yudeyuan Heart Pond", is actually a Japanese-style garden. It was originally part of the upper house of the Maeda family, the lord of the Kaga domain, with different heights to the back and splendid trees around it. It was donated to Tokyo Imperial during the Meiji period. The reason why it was renamed "Sanshiro Pond" is because of the novel "Sanshiro" by the literary giant Soseki Natsume.
  Sanshiro Pond is located on a small hill behind Yasuda Lecture Hall, surrounded by winding paths under dense trees. The pond is small and the water is shallow, but unpredictable. By the Sanshiro Pond, an old man sat quietly, watching the historic Hongo campus and the vibrant boys and girls-this is the bronze statue of Hamao Shin, who has been guarding the Hongo campus since 1932. However, there were no female students in his time, and it was not until 1946, after the end of World War II, that the University of Tokyo admitted 19 female students for the first time in its history.

The ubiquitous computing research building is clad in a series of panels, which are made up of wooden slats.

Akamon is the gate of the Hongo Campus of the University of Tokyo on the side of Hongo Street. It is the symbol and symbol of the highest university in Japan.

  There are too many statues on the campus of Dongda University, and it is quite difficult to count them all. From the educators of the past dynasties to the well-known alumni of Dongda, they all have a place on the campus. The founders of many faculties at Dongda were Western scholars, which is fully reflected in the Western faces of those statues. For example, the statue in front of Hall 2 of the Faculty of Engineering is Charles Dickinson West, a British expert who brought Japan's mechanical engineering from enlightenment to maturity.
  The Yasuda Lecture Hall is unique among Japanese university buildings. Like Akamon and Sanshiro Pond, it is the symbol and symbol of the University of Tokyo. This is a 4-storey building of reinforced concrete structure with a steel dome roof and an 8-storey mezzanine. Its massed form and Gothic tone show an exterior design that emphasizes verticality, making it Become a representative building of the same period. It once welcomed Stephen Hawking, a master of theoretical physics, and is also an important venue for the opening and graduation ceremonies every year.
  The respect for technology and modernization is also reflected in the buildings of Dongda University. There are not only old Western buildings with brick facades in Gothic classical style, but also the latest buildings in modern style such as the Yamato Ubiquitous Computing Research Building.
  The concept of "pervasive computing" emphasizes computing that is integrated with the environment, while the computer itself disappears from people's sight. The Yamato Ubiquitous Computing Research Building is almost a perfect embodiment of this idea, only because its designer is Kengo Kuma, the genius of Japanese architecture. Kengo Kuma was born in Todai University, and his architectural works exude a Japanese style and oriental Zen, and are known as "negative architecture" and "Kuma Kengo style". The idea that Kengo Kuma has been trying to explore is to "make architecture disappear", and use architectural design to eliminate the sense of existence of architecture. This coincides with the concept of "ubiquitous computing" to some extent.
  In general, such buildings are made of hard materials. Kengo Kuma, however, chose natural elements for the Yamato Ubiquitous Computing Research Building, giving it a fluid, systematic façade. The layered façade is a precise representation of Kengo Kuma – the building is clad in a series of panels made up of wooden slats. If natural light penetrates the glass and enters this carefully designed interior space, the rhythm of the plank layers will be disrupted – just the effect that Kengo Kuma wants. On the ground floor there is a passage that connects the street in front of the building with the Japanese garden behind the principal's reception room. This public passage is designed to subtly disperse light and airflow across the campus. Without this passage, light and air flow would directly break into the plank layer.
  Tokyo is known as a chaotic metropolis where old and modern elements are mixed. Building a modern building such as the Yamato Ubiquitous Computing Research Building on the Dongda campus would have the same effect. That's both the downside and the charm. Kengo Kuma realized this chaos in the same building, making it blend with the surrounding chaos. He successfully "disappeared" the modern-style Yamato Ubiquitous Computing Research Building on the Dongda campus.


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