When it comes to university, words such as sacred, rigorous and vigorous may pop up in most people's minds. In fact, when the university was born, it was far more solemn than it is now. In the thousands of years of development of the university, it has been wandering between God and the earth, and therefore has left countless and beautiful buildings...
"There is a city in the university"
The early universities were formed gradually, and people would not deliberately set up a university according to special decrees, such as the University of Paris and the University of Oxford. The emergence of these universities is incredible, but they have not only existed, but have existed and developed for nearly a thousand years in this ever-changing world. So some people say: The so-called university is actually the result of the natural evolution of society.
Most of the medieval universities maintained a close relationship with the church at the beginning of their birth. This can be seen in the early buildings that are still preserved today.
Walking into the University of Oxford or the University of Paris, you can see many academic buildings, which make extensive use of the structures, shapes and architectural styles formed in church buildings. These halls are mostly built with masonry materials, with thick walls, several layers of rectangular windows, and features such as turrets and dormer windows.
Of course, the historic universities today are not just those old Gothic buildings, but mostly present as a collection of various architectural and historical styles. Some buildings are in the style of the early Renaissance, and some are of the high Renaissance, such as the majestic and solemn Romanesque, the baroque with strange techniques, and the delicate and complicated Rococo, all of which are integrated into the medieval style. the main campus environment. While reflecting the continuation of European architectural culture, it also presents people with the historical accumulation and dignified sense of university culture.
Oxford is like this. Since buildings of different styles in different periods are well preserved, this ancient world-famous university is like a picture scroll of vicissitudes of history and modern civilization. Those quaint, solemn and elegant college buildings are now the treasures of Oxford University, and more than 600 buildings have been listed as cultural relics. Some people commented on Oxford: This is a huge museum of British architectural history, and it is a living museum. There are still people living in it, living the modern life of the 21st century.
Some people commented on Oxford: This is a huge museum of British architectural history, and it is a living museum. There are still people living in it, living the modern life of the 21st century.
Not only Oxford University, but the entire city of Oxford is quaint. Those buildings belong to different architectural schools in different historical eras, and they make up the whole city. To appreciate the quintessence of Oxford architecture, go to Kafasta. The building at the corner of Cornmarket and Queen Streets is the only remnant of St. Martin's Church. Dating back to the 11th century AD, this church has long been the most important religious center in Oxford. Queen Elizabeth I also visited here to hold religious ceremonies.
Edward, the eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, came to Oxford in 1859 and became the first Crown Prince to enter the university, later Edward VII. No one knows if he climbed to Cafasta overlooking the city when he was in Oxford, but St Martin's Church still stood at that time. Later, due to the safety of the building structure and the road widening project, the church and the fountain were demolished one after another. Today, only the Cafasta remains, as a witness to the Church of St. Martin.
If you climb up the 99 steps, climb to Kafasta, and look down at the whole city, you will find that the classical buildings of Oxford University are actually scattered throughout the small town. Oxford is such a university, with no gates, no walls, or even an official signboard. The street passes through the campus, and 39 colleges are distributed throughout the city. The campus is the city, the city is the campus, and the city and the university are integrated.
Those quaint, solemn and elegant college buildings are now the treasures of Oxford University, and more than 600 buildings have been listed as cultural relics.
"There are universities in the city"
It's not just Oxford that has a perfect combination of city and university. If Oxford is "a city in a university", then Bologna in Italy is "a university in the city".
The city of Bologna is a little cramped, the buildings are not high, it is not as charming as Paris, not as historic as Rome, but it is very stocky. The colors of the exterior walls of every building on the roadside are like George Morandi's oil paintings, earth red, yellow-gray, and purple-gray. It feels elegant yet. Among these hues, numerous academy buildings are hidden. Most of these buildings are in the style of the Renaissance. Walking through them, surrounded by red brick and stone arcades, a kind of vicissitudes of thousands of years is coming.
Since the high Middle Ages, Bologna has been an important cultural center with a high reputation in Italy and even the whole of Europe. However, the University of Bologna, the "mother of universities" in Europe, does not have its own campus, and the school seems to be completely "embedded" in the city.
Built in the 16th century, the Palazzo Acikinacio was part of the University of Bologna, where since 1563 many scholars have studied logic, astronomy, medicine, philosophy and arithmetic. Entering the hall from the exquisite and solemn door, looking up, there are rows of family crests of European aristocrats hanging on the top wall of the corridor. These coats of arms, painted, carved, or sculpted, represent that the children of the noble families have been educated in this university for generations, and also show the noble blood of this university. Interestingly, the stairs of the Archikinacio Palace are also exquisite. This is because in the early days, the University of Bologna was known for its jurisprudence and art.