The trend of green ecologicalism emphasizes a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between man and nature, which is a gradual process and cannot be accomplished overnight. Even if it is indeed wrong to be anthropocentric, we cannot deny the contribution that science has made to human beings. It is not to completely deny the modern society supported by science, but to strive to find a balance between the two. Hayao Miyazaki delicately describes two levels of ecology in his animation: natural ecology and spiritual ecology. By expressing the imbalanced natural ecology and spiritual ecology, he calls on people not only to protect the coordination of natural ecology, but also to pay attention to the spiritual ecology. harmonious.
1. Natural ecological narrative alienated by "natural gods" Most of
Miyazaki 's works show a strong ecological awareness. He is not only based in Japan, but also expands his vision to the world, and perfectly integrates the theme of ecological civilization into his animations in the narrative of the film. Ecological consciousness, as a new value that reflects people and their environment, focuses on the relationship between humans and nature, as well as between humans and other living things .
Modern people emphasize the use of science to explain things around them, to think rationally about problems, and to get rid of all myths. In the past, people believed that natural disasters originated from the dissatisfaction of the gods in charge of that thing with people. In order to avoid the blame of gods, they were in awe of nature. Now people know that it is just a natural phenomenon, and there is nothing to fear, so it becomes more and more unscrupulous .
And Hayao Miyazaki returned to the origin, re-endowed nature with the image of "God", and used "God" to represent nature and communicate with people. In Hayao Miyazaki's animation works, there is no shortage of descriptions of gods, and most of the gods are the incarnation of nature. Such as the "King Bug" in "The Valley of the Wind", the forest god "Mountain God Beast" in "Princess Mononoke", the pig god "Master B", the mother of the ocean in "Princess Goldfish on the Cliff", The River God in Chihiro, etc. Some of the gods of nature described by Hayao Miyazaki are gentle and kind, such as "My Neighbor Totoro" in "My Neighbor Totoro"; some are divine and majestic, such as the Kirin Beast in "Princess Mononoke"; The River God in Chihiro [3-4].
Hayao Miyazaki personified nature and represented nature's cry with the river god who was mistaken for the "rotten god" beyond recognition, trying to arouse people's reflection, people's destruction of nature has reached the limit, nature has been ravaged beyond recognition, don't Continue to destroy.
People have always been immersed in the superiority of being the conqueror of nature, thinking that everything is used by man, that man is a high-level animal and has emotions, while nature is emotionless and serves human life, but they forget that nature is the cradle that nurtures life. , Human existence cannot be separated from nature. As a creature with a sense of social responsibility, human beings should not treat nature rudely, let alone consider their own interests one-sidedly. After experiencing many punishments of nature, we should understand that man is only a tiny existence in nature, Marx once said: "Man himself is a thing of nature, developed in their environment together with this environment. Therefore, people should abandon the concept of conquering nature in the past, and respect and care for nature .
In "Guanzi Human View", it is said that "Although the rivers and seas are wide, the pools and lakes are rich, and the fish and turtles are many, there must be integrity. The boat and net cannot be made with one wealth." It emphasizes that people should not take too much from nature. As far as modern ecological theory is concerned, human beings should not base their development on the destruction of the natural environment, but should achieve harmony between their own development and natural development.
2. Spiritual Ecology Narrative of Alienation of "Human"
Spiritual ecology arose in the wave of criticism in the 1990s. It examines the relationship between human civilization and nature through literary texts, not only to save the nature on which human beings depend, but also to return to The nature of human nature, so as to rescue the alienation problem of human beings, and finally reconstruct a new type of spiritual home and material home in which man and nature are one.
Consumerism is prevalent today, and business logic dominates the development of society. After World War II, consumerism emerged in developed countries such as Europe and the United States. It affects people's values and consumption outlook. It develops with the development of social productivity and has been recognized by people. Commodity economy has become the core of operation, and the pursuit of profit maximization is the main goal of consumer society. Over time, egoism, individualism, and money worship dominate people's lives, while family, friendship, and love are abandoned by people. Human nature gradually degenerates, and the spiritual world gradually becomes desolate.
Hayao Miyazaki skillfully uses the high degree of assumption of animated films and his rich imagination to convey his profound thinking on man and nature, man and life. Ecological naturalism mostly believes in a kind of post-materialism, criticizing the endless material pursuit and material enjoyment of industrial capitalist society. In "Spirited Away", the criticism is made by Chihiro's parents who have been alienated into pigs: Chihiro's parents can't help temptation in front of unattended delicacies, and eat so much that even if their clothes are torn, and Despite being whipped, he still refuses to give up his pursuit of delicious food. Turning people into pigs is a naked satire of people: dirty, lazy, greedy. Hayao Miyazaki alienates greedy humans into pigs, conveying the idea that the infinite expansion of desire will eventually lead humans to lose themselves, so as to warn humans not to get lost in boundless desires.
Hayao Miyazaki metaphorically alienates a group of people in society who are lost in the enjoyment of low-level pleasures and have an empty spiritual world as "faceless men". It can make gold at will, and can give Qianxun an expensive bath brand. It can be said to be a "big money", but it is very lonely and cannot communicate with others. It used its own money to attract many admirers, rather than the thoughtful service of money worshippers, alluding to those who are so poor that only money is left: there are many such people in society, and they have inexhaustible Money, like a faceless man, uses money to buy fun, to buy other people's flattery, to buy one's own existence, etc. Although he knows that others are not sincere to him, he is still deeply immersed in that false sense of satisfaction and can't extricate himself. And sink deeper and deeper, and may eventually lead to self-destruction.
Social progress and technological development have brought us a wealth of material enjoyment. People pay more and more attention to simple, rude, quick and short-term material interests and sensory enjoyment, and gradually get lost in the materialistic society, and the spiritual world is desolate. For human beings, this barren spiritual world is undoubtedly pathological, and it is the fast-paced high-tech society that gradually engulfs people's spiritual world. How to find the self, Hayao Miyazaki gave the answer-return to the pure originality of people in the coexistence of man and nature, and draw strength from the pure originality. Return to nature, return to the original state of tolerance, return to innocence, return to the original state of human beings.
3. The metaphorical narrative of "man and nature" against transformation As a giant in the Japanese animation industry,
Hayao Miyazaki 's exploration of the relationship between man and nature and between man and man is a constant theme in his works. Conflicts and confrontations between humans and nature are common plot types, and we use story metaphors to think about the relationship between humans and between humans and nature. Benjamin said: "The extensive use of metaphors and the 'unique sensibility' of figures of speech should all be attributed to a strong interest in allegorical expressions, rather than the clichéd poetic sensibility." It can be seen that in the creation of allegorical texts, Almost all of the images have metaphorical meanings, and the metaphors in Miyazaki's works have multiple meanings.
Most of the plots of Hayao Miyazaki's works pit human beings against other species in nature, expressing the hatred of non-human creatures in nature towards human beings through the mouth of the gods. The contradiction between man and nature is vividly expressed through this antagonistic relationship, and the reconciliation between man and nature is usually expounded in the ending.
In "Spirited Away", the river god who was polluted and turned into a rotten god was cleaned by Qianxun and became a kind-hearted grandfather, and gave Qianxun a ball. The kind and warm side of the god was show out.
In "Nausicaa", Nausicaa sacrificed herself to mediate the conflict in the final fierce battle between humans and insects, and rescued the little king insect who was taken as a hostage, but was rescued by the golden tentacles of the insect swarm. In front of gentle and kind people, the vicious king bug also became gentle.
At the end of the movie "Princess Mononoke", after the mountain god whose head was cut off got his head, he restored the desolate forest. Shan said, "I like you, but I can't forgive human beings." Ashitaka said, "Then we will be together. Live on!"
From the above content, we can see Hayao Miyazaki's wish: man and nature are inevitably in conflict, but the best outcome is the unity of nature and man. The harmonious coexistence between man and nature is the best choice for mankind.
Hayao Miyazaki's animations give people a strong visual impact by comparing pure and beautiful nature with filthy and incomplete nature. Human existence cannot be separated from nature. The foundation of human development is the sustainability of nature. The key is to construct a mode of harmonious coexistence between man and nature. Hayao Miyazaki often says that he is a splitter and does not want to completely abandon modern civilization and go back to the past, so we can always find hope for survival in the fierce conflict between man and nature that he represents. Hayao Miyazaki's anime theme pinned on His expectation of people living in harmony with nature.
Hayao Miyazaki's works have very obvious characteristics of realism, but he did not simply imitate the real world, but tried to make his animation world a reflection of the real world, he said: "I think creating animation is creating a A fictional world. That world can soothe the soul oppressed by reality, stimulate the sluggish will, dissolve the disordered emotions, and make the viewer have a calm and light mood, as well as a purified state of mind.”
Hayao Miyazaki in his works It shows the eroded natural ecology and spiritual ecology. While calling on people to care for the environment and maintain ecological balance, it also warns people to pay attention to their own spiritual world and return to a healthy spiritual state. Caring for the ecological environment means caring for yourself, let alone getting lost in the materialistic society, properly returning to nature, walking into nature, and adding a little more healthy "green" to your spiritual world.
The rapid development of the Internet and the continuous popularization of smart phones make people over-reliant on virtual networks, and people gradually lose the real bond with the outside world. People become indifferent to each other, and even lose their interpersonal skills. They hide behind the virtual world every day, and use virtual networks to fill the emptiness in their hearts until they are swallowed by the emptiness.
As far as the spiritual level is concerned, try to avoid being trapped by foreign objects and thus lose yourself. Human beings depend on nature to survive, so they should return to nature, walk into nature in a timely manner, and feel the charm of nature. Just like the heroine Hida of "City in the Sky" said: "I finally understand why Laputa will perish. No matter how advanced the technology is, if it is not rooted in the soil, it will eventually perish." Therefore, do not want to be yourself The best way to be enslaved by foreign objects is to return to life in nature.