Why is TB aka "Romantic Disease"? Is TB the same as pulmonary TB? Is tuberculosis necessarily contagious? Today, let's find out together.
The Ancient "Romantic Disease"
Tuberculosis is an ancient disease that dates back as early as 70,000 years ago and was once known as the "white plague." At least 200 million people have lost their lives to tuberculosis throughout history. But in Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries, tuberculosis was called the "romantic disease", because the patients were all thin, pale, and flushed, which was the morbid beauty that a lot of literature was very much sought after during this period. The beauty's bleeding lips and the bloodstains on the corners of her mouth, as well as the depressive temperament revealed by the torment of illness, this pale and gorgeous beauty was once popular in Europe.
However, after lifting the veil of romanticism, we see more flushed cheeks, nervous temperament, frail physique and long treatment process.
In 1882, German microbiologist Robert Koch discovered the culprit of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
TB = TB?
Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the human body, which can affect almost all organs and has various manifestations. It is known as "the universal imitator".
The most common form of tuberculosis is pulmonary tuberculosis, which is transmitted through the respiratory tract.
So tuberculosis ≠ pulmonary tuberculosis. In addition to pulmonary tuberculosis, extrapulmonary tuberculosis is also very common, and any tissues and organs of the human body except hair, teeth and nails may be invaded by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Take a general hospital like Peking Union Medical College Hospital as an example. The hospital does not have a dedicated ward or outpatient clinic for tuberculosis patients, but there are many patients who need to be diagnosed or excluded every day. Due to the difficulty in obtaining etiological diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, a comprehensive diagnosis of clinical, laboratory, imaging, and pathology is required.
Why is the "culprit" (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) so difficult to eradicate?
In the process of co-evolution with humans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis has become more and more "smart" in order to adapt to the living environment. It is highly contagious, very "cunning" (knows long-term latent and waits for opportunities), and has drug resistance (resistance to a variety of first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs), pathogenic complexity (the drug resistance rate of retreatment patients is about 18%), difficult to obtain pathogens, and formed unique pathogenic characteristics.
Is "TB" necessarily contagious?
The source of infection of tuberculosis is the active pulmonary tuberculosis patients who are sick, and the pulmonary tuberculosis patients with positive etiology are the main source of infection.
When pulmonary tuberculosis patients cough, sneeze and speak loudly, a large number of droplets containing tuberculosis bacteria can be produced, which can be spread through the air and dust and enter the body of healthy people. However, patients with latent infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and cured pulmonary tuberculosis patients are not contagious.
Latent infection of
Mycobacterium tuberculosis After Mycobacterium tuberculosis infects the human body, most people can rely on their own immunity to clear the tuberculosis bacteria, or achieve a "temporary reconciliation" with the tuberculosis bacteria, that is, latent tuberculosis infection (the human body is infected with tuberculosis). Persistent immune response following stimulation with mycobacterial antigens, a condition that does not manifest clinical evidence of active tuberculosis). It is estimated that 25% of the global population has latent TB infection, and their lifetime risk of developing active TB is 5% to 10%, with the majority (about 70%) occurring within the first two years after latent TB infection.
Who is at risk for TB?
Whether an infected person develops disease is not only related to the quantity and virulence factors of TB infection, but also to human immunity. Such as infants, the elderly, malnourished patients, diabetic patients, malignant tumor patients, kidney disease patients, organ transplant recipients, long-term use of hormone inhibitors, irregular life and diet, and mental stress in latent tuberculosis infection patients. The risk of TB is far greater than in immunocompetent people. A survey conducted in my country showed that the prevalence of active tuberculosis in patients with rheumatism was almost twice that of the general population.
I suspect I have tuberculosis, what should I do?
If they have active TB symptoms recently, such as fever, cough, expectoration, night sweats, weight loss, etc., some people do not have any symptoms. They only find a "shadow" on the chest X-ray through a physical examination, and start to guess randomly, is it tumor or tuberculosis?
Lung shadow is not necessarily lung cancer, mainly divided into infectious diseases and non-infectious diseases. Infectious diseases include tuberculosis, other bacteria, fungi, viruses and other pathogens, while non-infectious diseases include lung cancer, emphysema, etc.
If the above symptoms appear, it is recommended to seek medical treatment in a regular hospital infection department or respiratory department in time. Conduct chest CT examination, blood test, tuberculin skin test, sputum examination, etc. Even if it is diagnosed, there is no need to worry too much. Tuberculosis generally has a good prognosis. Some tuberculosis patients can heal themselves through their own resistance. The lung images show calcifications. However, do not conceal the condition or seek medical treatment blindly, otherwise it may lead to delayed treatment and infect others.
To prevent tuberculosis, you can do this; work and rest
regularly , and maintain an optimistic attitude; try to avoid contact with tuberculosis patients, and wear N95 masks if visiting; pay attention to indoor ventilation; eat more vegetables and fruits, get more sunlight, and quit smoking and drinking; once suspected tuberculosis occurs Symptoms (fever, cough, expectoration, night sweats, weight loss, etc.), seek medical attention in time.
yam mutton porridge
50 grams of yam, 100 grams of mutton, 100 grams of rice, 3 slices of ginger, 2 scallions, and appropriate amount of fine salt. Wash the yam and mutton and cut them finely; wash the ginger and scallions and cut them finely. Add an appropriate amount of water to the rice, bring it to a boil over low heat, add the mutton, and when the porridge is cooked, add scallion, ginger, fine salt, etc., and boil again, once a day. Beneficial for the lungs and kidneys. It is suitable for bone steaming for a long time.
Tempeh and sake are appropriate. Fry the tempeh slightly until fragrant and soak in sake for 3 days. 50 ml each time, 3 times a day. Can nourish yin and stop sweating. It is suitable for tuberculosis and night sweats.
Hundreds of suitable amounts. Select the lily, mash the juice, and mix it with warm water to drink or cook, 3 times a day. It can nourish yin and clear heat, resolve phlegm and relieve cough. It is suitable for those with blood in the sputum of tuberculosis.
Mulberry paste An appropriate amount of
mulberries . Select the mulberries, mash the juice, and condense them into a paste for later use. 30ml each time, 3 times a day, take appropriate amount of warm water. It can nourish yin and clear heat, resolve phlegm and relieve cough. For tuberculosis, scrofula sputum nucleus.