Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882), namely DG Rossetti, was an important representative of the Pre-Raphaelite poets, and his poems had a profound influence on the development of English poetry. DG Rossetti is a poet and painter. He writes poems on his left and paintings on his right. There are paintings in his poems and poems in his paintings. Each stanza is like a colorful picture scroll. "His paintings have the characteristics of narrative, Poetry has the texture of pictures”; his poems contain stillness in movement, movement in stillness, and the characters and scenes are moving and still, “full of rather perceptual trivialities and touchable intangibles”.
Poetry is a prism, which reflects the poet's life and even the trajectory of life from multiple perspectives. Poetry is "a kind of transparent art", through which one can comprehend the poet's personal experience and inner world. DG Rossetti's poems "Poems" (including "The Palace of Life") and "Folk Ballads and Sonnets", etc., use myths, prototypes and symbols to describe the frankness of sex and the confusion of the true meaning of life. The poet was born into a family of Italian revolutionaries in exile in London. His younger brother, William Michael, was also a poet and painter, and his younger sister was Christina Rossetti, the "number one" British poetess. Rossetti's home was a place where exiled politicians and literati criticized current affairs, recited poetry and painted paintings. Like his younger sister, the poet has been taught by his mother since he was a child, and later received formal education in the primary school attached to King's College, and then transferred to the Royal Academy of Fine Arts to study painting, under the tutelage of famous masters such as Brown and Hunter. However, due to his disgust with the academic school's excessive pursuit of form and technique, blind plagiarism, and the rigid style of art without art, he founded the "Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood" together with William Hunter and John Milley. He created poems and paintings on the theme of medieval chivalry and religion, pursued the innocence and beauty of art before Raphael, and published his handed down work "Goddess" in the publication "Sprouting" founded by the Brotherhood.
DG Rossetti's love and marriage not only provided the driving force and passion for his poetry creation, but also provided the female symbol of praise and praise, and also made his poetry like a silent cry in the soul, and made his creative theme from "Pre-Raphaelite" religion turned to bold "sensual" depictions. The three women he loves: the red-haired beauty Sidl, the wife of a friend Jane and the model Fanny give him inspiration and inspiration for his poetry. During his participation in the Pre-Raphaelite Fraternity, Rossetti met Sidl, who soon became his model and the feminine symbol of his admiration. Due to his bohemianism and financial constraints, the duo have been unable to set foot on the red carpet. Later, while painting at Oxford, he met Jane, a brunette who replaced the red-haired beauty as his model, whom he portrayed as the goddess of heaven, who later married his friend Mo. Reese's wife. The lost poet finally married Sidler, who had been in love for ten years. However, at this time, his passion faded away, and there was no spiritual union, only physical union. Depressed, Sidl died because of an overdose of opium. The poet grieved and felt guilt. He buried his poems in the coffin as a sacrifice for his deceased wife. A few years later, he couldn't resist the persuasion of friends before opening the library and taking out the poems. He published the sonnet collection "The Palace of Life", which is a portrayal of the poet's life. Later, his housekeeper and model Fanny became his new lover. The lowly born model, Fanny, contrasted sharply with the reserved Sidl, who depicted her in his paintings as a symbol of carnal sexuality and whose themes shifted from "pre-Raphaelian" religion to bold "carnal desires". Sensual" description, and attracted the criticism of Buchanan and others, calling him "the sensual poetry school" and his poems "the sensual poetry".
In addition, the poet was also influenced by poets such as Blake, Coleridge, Keats and Browning, wandering between realism and romanticism, academicism and naturalism. His poems contain strong mysticism, symbolism and religious overtones.
Life, love, death and immortality are the eternal themes of poetry. DG Rossetti's poems are mainly about love, but also death and resurrection, mainly exploring the relationship between soul and body; his poems mainly include narrative and lyric, among which the most representative works include "Goddess" and "My Sister". Asleep" and "The Confession of Love", "The Lover of Love", "One Day of Love", "The Sweetness of Love", "Death of Love" in "The Palace of Life", etc. ", etc., only because it was translated and introduced to China earlier, and the evaluation is high, it does not fully represent Rossetti's highest level.
"Goddess" is Rossetti's representative work with high artistic achievements. The illusory narrative poem describes a young girl who has ascended to heaven. She leans on the golden railings of heaven, and her profound eyes cross the boundary of heaven and earth, staring at the sky for a long time. , imagine the touching scene of the mortal lover to meet. The application of rhetorical techniques such as synaesthesia, metaphor, and symbolism, the sensory intentions such as color and sound are complex and distinct, and the psychological description is meticulous. eager. Narrative space: the golden railings of heaven, the walls of heaven, the sky, the bridge and the grove where the Virgin Mary lives; Narrative time: an instant. Narrative: Internal focus. At the beginning of the poem, the very beautiful goddess leaned against the railings, her faint bright eyes looked down at the world, and longed for her lover to appear: "The golden railings of heaven are yellow and clear, / The goddess leans on the railing and leans out. / The faint eyes are deeper than the calm pool... / She She must have leaned over and looked down at me—/Her hair brushed my whole face." Then the poet imagined a very large space, and the earth became a dwarf: "She is standing in the sky Above the wall. / That is the boundary between heaven and earth established by God across the incomparable depth... / That is the sky bridge that stands in the sky and crosses the torrent of heaven and earth. / Under the sky bridge, day and night are alternated, / light and darkness are alternated The edge of the world. / The empty space between heaven and earth, down to the place where the earth rotates like a restless dwarf." Then, the grand narrative perspective suddenly pulled to a partial close-up, in Maria's grove, the goddess poured out her heart and prayed to the gods The protection of the adoration is delicate and touching: "The Virgin Mary herself, hand in hand, will hand us over to my Lord.../I will pray to Jesus my Lord,/for the beloved and for me,/—let us be as if we were in As in the world / Always love each other; / - let us be like the short past / always be together, he and I." Narrative time is a moment, the moment when the goddess looks down on the earth, longing for her lover, but with Rossetti The "eternity" of love forms a strong contrast.
Rossetti's poetry contains strong mysticism, symbolism and religion. Among his more than 120 sonnets, one characteristic is that the first half of the poems are rhythmic and rhythmic, and the rhythm is bright and smooth, while the second half contains some mysterious images, mostly related to religion, with obscure meanings, which are difficult to decipher and even more difficult to translate. "Sweetness of Love", "Death of Love", "A Day of Love" and "Confessions of Love" have this feature. The first eight lines of the first section of "The Sweetness of Love" show readers a beautiful girl, her hair, slender hands, her eyes, smile, her sweet lips and kisses. "Her fluffy hair falls in a sweet haze/Hides your face; her lovely arms wrap around your head/like a graceful wreath;/her timid smile; her eyes evoke sweetness Love; / Her shallow sighs are long in memory; / Her sweet lips pick up your sweet kisses, the ones / On her cheeks, neck and eyelids, and then / Back to what she can represent all of them The fragrant lips." This is a poem, but also a painting, what a beautiful image is in front of the reader's eyes. The imagery that appeared in the last six lines of the second stanza: "wings", "clouds" and "claws" is rather puzzling, especially "did it ever sense/under the claws during the journey through the cloud-locked mist hood? The breath of a partner with the same feathers?" Two lines, why "cloud lock fog cover"? Why does a gentle heart have "sharp claws"? The first half of "Confessions of Love" is more like a love letter, a declaration of love , the poet expresses his love very frankly and boldly: "Oh! In the beautiful moments of love, dear you / occupy my heart all the time, / My heart is wrapped in love, and your heart is a confession of love; / When I am close to you, I perceive your breath as the temple of love / That mysterious fragrance; / You have love silently, determined to fulfill / The will of love, your life and mine have merged, / You whisper: I It's yours, you and I are one!
Rossetti's poetry has a unique aesthetic value and artistic quality; his poetry is an art of transformation and transcendence, an art of transforming life into legend and details of personal life into universal human significance; his Poetry is the poet's "death and immortality, joy and sorrow, spirit and body, morality and love, contradiction and confusion", and has the common characteristics of Pre-Raphaelite: rebellion, redemption, disillusionment and echo; The aesthetic descriptions of hair, bright eyes, eyebrows, pink lips, cheeks, fragrant necks, crisp breasts and slender hands pursue the pure aesthetics and form of art, and play a transcendental and practical pioneering role in the rise and development of aestheticism; The poet constructs various images in his poems, such as "day" and "night" symbolizing the alternation of light and darkness, the cycle of life and death, "day", "night", "ivory", "sandalwood", The construction of images such as "crown", "crystal bed" and "rose" impacted the vision, stimulated imagination, and played a role in promoting the birth of symbolism and formalism. The limitations of Rossetti's poetry are mainly reflected in: first, the mystery, negativity and pessimism of the later creation. Poets pursue retro, escapism (the European Revolution, the Charter Movement), and lack the romantic feelings of the Poet Laureate, reflecting the limitations of artistic supremacy and aestheticism. Second, the "rebelliousness" and "avant-garde" of the Pre-Raphaelites formed irony, contradiction and confusion with the retrospect of medieval religion and mythology.