The Central Asian Donggan People with the same accent



  On July 5, 2008, I accompanied Zheng Xiaoshan, a reporter from Xi'an TV Station, to film the location of the Confucius Temple in Nanjing. I happened to meet several tourists from Central Asia. They could speak fluent Xi'an, which aroused our great concern. interest. They looked at the clear Qinhuai River, took pictures and sang "Flowers": two branches of the red heart willow / You are the peony in the garden / Brother is like a bee picking yellow wax / One day old girl is worried about.

  I will also sing this "Flower". I sang next to these Central Asian guests: The cypress wood needs a piece of water / It's like the Mamba river is rising / The stone washes away the rustling / This trick really works! One of the Central Asian tourists was Wu Eric. He heard my singing and ran over immediately and said to me, "You sing wife! It's the Shaanxi Township Party." I was taken aback, this Wu Eric, with yellow hair and blue eyes, spoke the authentic Shaanxi Guanzhong dialect. He said he was a Dungan from Central Asia.

  We chatted with Wu Eric like old friends reunited after a long absence: In 1862, the Shaanxi Hui uprising, the Qing government sent Zuo Zongtang into Shaanxi in three groups, and drove the Shaanxi Hui uprising from Shaanxi to Gansu and Ningxia. , Qinghai, Xinjiang, Shaanxi Hui uprising army claims to be 300,000 horses, in fact, many of them are women and children. This is the migration of a nation. They left their homes, dragged their children and brought their daughters, and paid the price of blood for every step they took. In the end, there were less than 10,000 people left, who crossed the Tianshan Mountains and entered Central Asia to become the subjects of the Tsar.

  For more than a century, the Dungan people have been living in villages where only their own people live, maintaining a relatively independent way of life and cultural traditions. At present, the Dungans mainly live on the banks of the Issyk-Kul Lake and the Chu River. In addition, there are also many Dungan settlements in the two Central Asian metropolises of Almaty in Kazakhstan and Bishkek in Kyrgyzstan. . There were about 150,000 Dungans in the 1880s, and now there are about 120,000.

  Looking at Wu Eric's golden hair and blue eyes, we were filled with doubts. Since their ancestors were "Shaanxi Muslims", what happened to their yellow hair and blue eyes? When Wu Eric understood our doubts, his expression was very complicated and told us the whole story: it turned out that after the Shaanxi Hui people settled in Central Asia, because there were fewer women in this ethnic group, there were great limitations in finding people. Some married Kazakhs, Kyrgyzians and Russians with the tsar's approval. In this way, after getting married, there is a generational inheritance. This generation is like Chinese, and the next generation is like Central Asians. Wu Eric is a descendant of Shaanxi Hui people who inherited the inheritance.

  Wu Eric looked a little excited and talked endlessly, as if he had met a long-lost relative. He fluently spoke the Xi'an dialect of the Qing Dynasty more than 100 years ago, which made us feel more cordial. For example, they call airplanes "iron kites", matches "foreign fires", girls "women" or "girls", and village cadres "assistants". These are the same as the names of rural areas in Shaanxi. When we parted, Wu Eric repeatedly invited us to "play" in Central Asia.




  On July 20, 2008, Zheng Xiaoshan, a reporter from Xi'an TV station, boarded a plane from Xinjiang, flew to Almaty, and then took a long-distance bus to the Chu River Basin in northern Kyrgyzstan, which is more than 8 hours away from the capital. Shkek is more than 100 kilometers away. This is a Donggan village called "Xinquliang". The villagers heard that we were from China and warmly invited us to visit their house. Wu Eric's brother came to hear the news, he said: "My brother said hello, and said a few 'Shijiazi' (writers), all from the 'yamen' (government) in their hometown. No, I It’s been a long time since I’ve waited, so let’s sit down at home, not far away, the big willow tree over there is my home. The weather is hot, and it’s very hard and tired…”

  We were in a foreign country, listening to the hot Chinese words incessantly. Thank you incessantly.

  Wu Eric's older brother took my hand, his black and red face was full of joy, he laughed, and from time to time he said to a few Donggan people next to him: "'Shijiazi' can understand what we say. Mile!"

  Wu Eric's older brother, Wu Ahmed, told us that Wu Eric had gone to Moscow, and his younger brother asked him to take care of us. He said: "Actually, we are all Chinese. My grandfather was always talking about when he could go back to his hometown. Come on, wait for my brother to come back. Have a good time for a few days. The watermelon here is sweet. The variety is It was introduced from China, yes, it was introduced from Xinjiang, China..."

  This is a typical Shaanxi-style farmyard. The mansion is a warehouse and kitchen. There is a vegetable field in the film, and a Russian-made "Ziguli" brand car is parked in the garage. There is a Eight Immortals table in the house, and there are seven dishes and eight bowls of dishes, such as scrambled eggs with chives, vinegared cabbage, fried meatballs, steamed eggplants, roasted rabbit meat, oily and spicy peppers and so on.

  We took out the gifts that we brought from China, and Wu Ahmed gave it a little and accepted it. He called his wife, son and daughter-in-law, and a family of 8 people, all of them introduced us one by one, and told us: "Remember, it's called Laojiu, you want to be Laojiu. This is the custom in my hometown in Shaanxi... "

  Wu Ahmed's eldest son and daughter-in-law are both Ph.D.s, and the husband and wife both teach at the Kyrgyz National University. His eldest son told us—that the people of Donggan have their own script—using the Russian alphabet to concatenate the Shaanxi dialect of the Qing Dynasty into a pinyin script. It is said that this written language of the Dungan people was created by linguists from the former Soviet Union in the 1950s when Sino-Soviet relations were too good. Thinking about it carefully, this can be regarded as a successful attempt to pinyin Chinese characters. The name of the people of Donggan can also be described as "Chinese and Russian". They all have their own names in Russian, such as the full name of Lao Han, the chairman of the "Qudi Village" cooperative, Han Ishar Yusupovich, but in Donggan Village, people still maintain the habit of more than 100 years ago , called him "Old Han".




  Wu Ahmed also introduced to us Professor Bai Shaurov of "Xinquliang Village". He used to work in a polytechnic institute in Moscow and has been retired for 10 years. He has done a lot of research on the history of the Dungan people. That afternoon, we went to interview Professor Bai Shaurov, who has unique insights into the development history of the Muslims. However, the old man was seriously ill in bed, and his sons and daughters refused to allow interviews, and they ate a closed door "soup" three times. What should I do if I refuse an interview? It is necessary to preemptively. We can say a few more "we old people" in front of Professor Bai's children, which can resonate and build a bridge of hearts. Of course, we succeeded. Professor Bai told us that the Donggan people in Central Asia are the descendants of Shaanxi Hui people. In the deep winter of 1870, the rest of the Shaanxi Muslim uprising army took more than a month to finally cross the calamitous Tianshan Mountains. Thousands of people died, and there were less than 5,000 people left. They had completely lost their combat effectiveness. They came to the shores of Lake Issyk-Kul, the Kazakh army attacked them, the Kyrgyz army plundered them, and they were powerless to fight back. The tsar sent the general secretary to ask them, would you like to be my subjects? With tears in their eyes, they said yes. Toshi asked where did they come from? They pointed to the Tianshan Mountains behind them and said that we are from Dong'anzi from "Donganzi", and Guanzhong people call the east side "Donganzi" and the west side "Xi'anzi". In this way, the Central Asians call Shaanxi Hui people "Donggan people" with a homonym. It means "people of the east coast".

  Although the Tsarist Russian authorities gave the Dungan people a new national title, hoping to make them reborn, however, the Dungan people have their own cultural choices. They not only stick to their spoken language, but also do their best to retain the customs of life when they left their homeland. It is precisely because of their unstoppable attachment to traditional civilization in their souls that the Chinese people who have set foot on the land of Central Asia today will be surprised to find that in the Chu River Valley where the Donggan people live, there are actually several buildings full of charm in the late Qing Dynasty. Shaanxi Village".




  Walking into Uncle Wu Ahmed's farmyard, it feels like being in a rural area in Shaanxi. The granaries, wells, and strings of old corn on the eaves all reveal the ancient spirit of Chinese civilization. There is a large kang in the main room for guests, with Chinese New Year pictures on the wall, which I heard were brought back from England. In the center of the kang is a kang table with mottled oil stains. Sitting cross-legged at the kang table, eating a bowl of noodles carefully pulled out by the host's "auntie", stretched out the chopsticks, and tasted the taste of various pickles and stir-fried vegetables, one does not know where to hide the feeling of being abroad.

  "Qudi Village" and "Xinquliang Village" on the banks of the Chu River are two large villages inhabited by Donggan people. The scenes of the villagers' hard work and hard work left a deep impression on us. The people of Donggan are skilled in farming, and most of them make a living by growing vegetables. Vegetables in Central Asia are very expensive, and Donggan Village is not far from big cities such as Bishkek and Almaty. In this way, growing vegetables allows people in Donggan to earn a considerable amount of income every year. Compared with the neighboring villages of Turkic people, the people of Dungan lived a prosperous and prosperous life. Wu Ahmed said that the prosperous days of the Dungans stem from their hard-working nature. To us, the money of the people of Donggan together with their busy figures is like a beautiful landscape painting, you can only appreciate it, but you will not be jealous of the scenery in the painting, because you know that the bitterness comes with the sweetness. It feels like not everyone can enjoy it.

  The people of Donggan live on an isolated language island. They speak Chinese in the village, which is Shaanxi dialect, and outside, they speak Russian. Their language is still in the language environment of the Qing Dynasty. Some people even asked me, is Zuo Zongtang still alive? In the Donggan Village in Central Asia, if a child cries, the adults will say, if you cry, Zuo Zongtang will kill you, and the child will not dare to cry.




  The next day , Tianma was bright, and we were about to leave. Wu Eric called my brother, expecting us to stay for another day and wait for him to come back. I took the call and declined his offer, promising him we would come again.

  At this time, Wu Eric asked me on the other end of the phone, almost choking, and said, "Mr. Li, our hometown of Donggan people is Shaanxi, China, but how did our ancestors come to Shaanxi, China?" , I patiently told him the historical fragments of the Chinese Hui people, which took 20 minutes:

  In the middle and late Tang Dynasty, the Anshi Rebellion occurred, and the emperor of the Tang Dynasty had to invite people from Central Asia and Aweibo to fight, which is now called mercenary. 10 years later, these 20-year-old mercenaries are 30 and 30-year-olds are 40. There was no battle left, they had nothing to do, and they wanted to go home. Then, when the mercenary soldiers saw the officials of the Tang Dynasty, they said the words "Hui, Hui", which means to go home. The people of the Tang Dynasty didn't understand it, so they called them "Huihui". The mercenaries want to go home, but the emperor refuses to let them go back to Central Asia and Arabia. What if there will be a few more An Lushan and Shi Siming rebellions? Someone gave the emperor an idea: let them find a wife for each mercenary and start a family, let them live and work in peace, do they still want to go back? The emperor thought it right! On the night of the annual Lantern Festival, the entire city of Chang'an was lit up with brilliant lights, and thousands of men, women and children admired the lanterns. At this time, the emperor issued an order to let the Hui soldiers take to the streets to rob the daughter-in-law, and sent a message: the girl whose hair is combed is the girl who can be robbed; The officers and soldiers of the imperial court followed, and the girl's elder brother and father could not interfere, and whoever interfered would be convicted. On the 16th day of the first lunar month, the emperor ordered people to open the treasury to give generous betrothal gifts to the families of the robbed girls to appease the people. In this way, no one of the Hui mercenaries really went home, and they lived a life of "you plow the fields and let me weave" in China. After they have a child, because the father's name is longer, the child simply takes the mother's surname. Now, among the 100 family surnames in China, most of the Hui compatriots have the surname Zhang Wang Li Zhao. Wu Ahmed told us that more than 40 students from Donggan Village in Central Asia were sent to study Chinese in Xi'an. He said that the mother tongue should not be forgotten. After the defeat of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, many officers and soldiers fled to Southeast Asian countries. They lost their mother tongue. Only the Donggan people from Donggan Village in Central Asia still speak the Chinese Shaanxi dialect more than 100 years ago. Isn't it a miracle? ?

  Wu Ahmed was in tears when we left Xinquliang Village. He asked us to call him "Old Wu" and we complied. Wu Ahmed happily said "trouble, trouble," while swiftly plucking two large watermelons from the watermelon field by the roadside, insisting that we take them to eat on the road. He stood under the big willow tree, raised his fists above his head, and said with trembling lips, "Xiang Dang, come again next year!"



Moroccan football team: "The most familiar stranger"

   When I was still in college ten years ago, I led a sightseeing group of more than 30 Moroccan students. Before meeting them, my general impression of the Moroccans was that they are from North Africa but closer to the Arab world. They have religious beliefs, are used to worship, and are inextricably linked with France.   When I saw the real person, I realized that the North Africans in front of me were actually a group of children playing with each other and having fun in time. They were about the same age as me at the time. I have all kinds of nicknames and nicknames. During the process of taking them to Badaling, the Summer Palace and Houhai, two classmates and I, together with more than 30 Moroccan students, realized "cultural integration" and "world unity" in the small group to some extent.   During the World Cup in Qatar, I was surprised to find that the little-known Morocco team, which was eliminated in the group stage of the last World Cup, after miraculou

Zeigarnik effect

  As a freelancer, you have to fight procrastination every day. "I've made up my mind many times, but I just can't change it. Is it because I'm slow or slow?". In fact, many procrastinations are irrational. Many obstructions are imagined by myself. So distract, postpone, avoid confrontation. It's cool to procrastinate, and it's cool to procrastinate all the time, so I can't do it. Concentration is also related to physical strength. When the physical strength is exhausted, it is even more difficult to concentrate. You’ll tell yourself: I’m too tired to do this—okay, another perfect procrastination.   In 1927, Bruma Zeigarnik's senior research found that people are more likely to care about unfinished and interrupted work than completed work. This is the Zeigarnik effect. For example, we often don't care much about what we have got, but we will especially cherish what we have worked hard but haven't got. Therefore, the TV series will tell you

Hebei Xingang Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.

Hebei Xingang Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd is located in the industrial park of Zhao County, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, near the world-famous ZhaoZhou Bridge. Our facility neighbors the Qinyin Expressway and 308 National Highway on the east, and it neighbors the Jingzhu Expressway and 107 National Highway on the west. It is located 30 km from Shijiazhuang High-speed Train Station and 50 km from Shijiazhuang International Airport. Our company mainly focuses on the research, production and retail of rifamycin and its derivatives, and pharmaceutical raw materials and intermediates. Our products mainly include, Rifamycin S Sodium, Rifamycin S, 3-Formyl Rifamycin SV, Rifamycin SV Sodium, Rifampicin, Rifandine, Rifaximin, Rifapentine, Rifabutin, Rilmenidine, and so on. We are currently the world’s main manufacturer of anti-tuberculosis drugs and rifamycin and its derivatives. Hebei Xingang Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd was established in 1996. Upon establishment, the company had a clear developmental goal o