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South Korea's relocation of the capital to the world's attention

   South Korea has nine provinces, one special city and five municipalities directly under the Central Government, covering an area of ​​99,000 square kilometers, accounting for 45% of the total area of ​​the Korean Peninsula. The capital of South Korea, Seoul, is only 600 square kilometers (equivalent to 1/30 of Beijing), but has a population of 12 million (same as Beijing), making it one of the most crowded cities in the world. Founded in 18 BC, Seoul is located in the central and western part of the Korean Peninsula, near the right bank of the lower Han River in the West Korea Sea. In 1394 AD, the Joseon Dynasty established its capital here, and it was called Hanyang at that time. Seoul currently consists of 22 districts. It is an international metropolis where high modernization and rich ancient heritage coexist harmoniously. Many palaces built by successive dynasties make it enjoy the reputation of "city of palaces". The banks of the Han River are lined with green trees and green grass. The facilities of the Seoul Sports Center and the Olympic Park are of world level. The success of the event made Seoul enjoy a high reputation in the world. It is precisely because of this that the news that South Korea will move the capital away from Seoul immediately attracted worldwide attention.

  In view of the inquiries and pressures from various parties, South Korean government officials also have different opinions on the nature of the move. In order to alleviate the troubles caused by the relocation of the capital, the Korean government insisted that the relocation of the state administrative organs out of Seoul is not "relocation of the capital", but only "relocation of the administrative capital". However, according to common sense, the place where the head of state of a country is located is the capital. Opponents seized on this and believed that the president would leave Seoul in the future, and the theory of "moving the capital" was established, and thus, the debate about the move of the capital of South Korea also started.   Since the middle of the

  

  last century, some countries have begun to take the relocation of their capitals as an important step for their own countries to adjust their economies and promote comprehensive development.

  

As far as the world is concerned, moving the capital has become an effective means of "reducing the burden" and controlling the scale of the capital.

  For example, first of all, Pakistan moved its capital from Karachi on the shore of the Indian Ocean to Islamabad, which greatly promoted the economic and socio-cultural development of the northern part of the country. Brazil, the largest country in South America, has historically been rich in the south and poor in the north, and its economic development is extremely unbalanced. As early as 1822, someone proposed to move the capital from Rio de Janeiro, a prosperous city on the southern coast, to the interior. In 1956, the Brazilian government selected the address of the new capital on a wasteland in the state of Goias in the central and western regions, and named it Brasilia. In April 1960, the capital of Brazil was officially moved to Brasilia.

  Nigeria moves capital from Lagos to Abuja. Lagos is an important port city on the southwest coast of Nigeria and the largest industrial and commercial city in Nigeria. However, due to the distance from the interior of the country, the country's economic development is extremely uneven, resulting in economic prosperity in Nigeria's coastal areas, while the interior is poor and backward, and the separatist sentiment of the northern minorities is also rising due to poverty. The government has finally made up its mind to make the central city of Abuja the seat of the new capital.

  Germany moved its capital from Bonn to Berlin. On June 20, 1991, Germany decided to move the Bundestag and the seat of government from Bonn to Berlin. On August 25, 1999, German Chancellor Schroeder moved into the interim Chancellery Office in Berlin as planned. For most Germans after reunification, Berlin is "Germany's only world city" and the best city to be the capital.

  Tanzania moved its capital from Dar es Salaam to Dodoma. As early as the 1970s, the Tanzanian government began to plan to move the capital to the central city of Dodoma, but the process of moving the capital was very slow and has not been realized so far. However, the Tanzanian government said that the capital of Tanzania will eventually be Dodoma.

  Kazakhstan moved its capital from Almaty to Astana. On December 10, 1997, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev announced that Almaty would be replaced by Akmola as the permanent capital of Kazakhstan. In May 1998, Akmola was renamed Astana. Astana is located in the central part of Kazakhstan's national territory. It has gradually developed since the 1950s and has become an important road and railway hub in northern Kazakhstan.

  Côte d'Ivoire moved its capital from Abidjan to Yamoussoukro. Côte d'Ivoire, formerly known as Ivory Coast, is one of the few countries in Africa that can be called wealthy. In order to enable the domestic economy to develop more comprehensively, the Ivorian government moved the capital from Abidjan, the national industrial and commercial center, to Yamoussoukro.

  In addition, the Congo (Kinshasa), South Africa, Cape Verde and other countries have also reported news of moving their capitals one after another. It is against the background of the international upsurge of capital relocation that South Korea decided to move the capital; it is precisely because of the special complexity of the Korean Peninsula issue. Sex and the important status of Seoul in the world, the relocation of the South Korean capital has attracted the attention of almost all countries in the world.

  

  The domestic tit-for-tat in South Korea The reason why the attitude of the

  

  Korean government and opposition to moving the capital is completely different is that each has its own reasons, and each of them has quite sufficient reasons. The South Korean government pushed the "balanced development of regional economy" as the primary reason for moving the capital. As early as the 1970s, when the Cold War was in full swing, the South Korean government proposed to move the capital in order to "avoid the war".

  In the decades of economic development, South Korea has formed an overly concentrated economic layout, and the capital Gyeonggi area centered on Seoul has become a super-economic belt. On a site that only accounts for 12% of the country's land area, more than half of the country's population and nearly 70% of its economic power are concentrated. Under such circumstances, the South Korean government is eager to establish a new administrative capital so as to radiate the surrounding area and develop in a balanced manner. At the same time, South Korea plans to improve the relationship between various provinces and cities and the distribution of economic benefits by moving the capital. The Congress previously passed the "Special Law on Decentralization" and the "Special Law on Balanced Development of the State". The relocation of the administrative capital has resolved the distribution and coordination of power between the central and local governments, and promoted the balanced development of the regional economy and society. Moving the capital Gyeonggi to the central part of the country can promote and promote the economic development of the relatively backward central region, and at the same time, it can balance the population density and radiate the economic and cultural development of other underdeveloped regions.

  However, opponents believe that relocation of the capital requires huge economic investment, and it takes a long time to achieve slow results, and it cannot quench the thirst of the near. In addition, the Yanqi-Gongju area is only more than 100 kilometers away from Seoul. Moving the capital there will not only not relieve the pressure on Seoul, but will also be counterproductive, forming a larger urban cluster and failing to achieve balanced regional economic development.

  South Korea's move is to build a new capital in the wilderness. This is a big project that requires at least tens of billions of dollars in investment, an area of ​​more than 83 million hectares, and a 23-year construction period. Faced with such a costly, time-consuming and uncertain super project, it is normal for South Korea to have differences and disputes across the country. Whether from a political point of view or an economic point of view, the pros and cons of the capital relocation project can be made into a long list. "The benevolent sees benevolence, and the wise sees wisdom" is a natural thing. Therefore, currently in South Korea, as the relocation of the new administrative capital is gradually advancing, the voices against the relocation of the capital in South Korea are getting louder. People's signature campaign, demanding the government to hold a referendum on the issue of moving the capital.

  Seoul Mayor Lee Myung-bak has repeatedly urged the South Korean central government to hold a referendum on the issue of moving the capital, saying the move must be done after consulting people, especially Seoul residents. He also reiterated that the Constitutional Court should veto the "Special Law on the New Administrative Capital" passed by the Congress on the decision to move the capital, because the bill lacks national consensus and goes against the spirit of the Constitution.

  

  Lee Myung-bak warned that relocating the capital would greatly reduce Seoul's competitiveness and influence as the economic center of South Korea and Northeast Asia, while some multinational corporations and Western governments did not seem to support South Korea's relocation. The residents of Seoul are worried that the capital status of Seoul will be deprived after moving the capital, and the marginalization of political status will lead to weak economic and social development in the region, so they instinctively oppose moving the capital, and set off a huge anti-relocation movement.

  However, some well-known cultural figures in South Korea actively support the government's relocation of the capital. They believe that the worship of the big capital implies an identification with the hierarchy and is a manifestation of anti-civilization and anti-culture. The capital must be the largest, and everything must be the first, and no other place can surpass it. Constructing the Grand Capital and allowing it to expand indefinitely resulted in a clunky situation that it had to barely maintain. Giant capitals become giant resource absorbers and resource consumers. The same is true of Seoul. Under the abnormal mentality of "the capital is the first in everything", the Seoul metropolitan area has absorbed more than half of the country's population and 70% of its economic strength.

  The result of hypertrophy in the capital is that the pressure on the capital in terms of population, environment, transportation, energy, water resources, and living conditions continues to intensify, the real estate speculation continues to heat up, the citizens are miserable about the high housing prices, and they have grievances against motor vehicles and people. very deep. Therefore, the banner of those who support moving the capital is: "We don't want a bloated economic animal, we want a Seoul where everyone can run freely!"

  

  South

  

  Korea 's new capital is about to appear. Eyebrows, the Yanqi-Gongju area won the first place with a score of 88.96. Judging from the population and area in its planning plan, it will also be a "little capital" with elegant appearance and well-proportioned physique. The Yeongi-Gongju area is located in the north-central part of Chungcheongnam-do in the central part of South Korea, about 160 kilometers away from Seoul, with a total area of ​​more than 200 square kilometers and a population of 133,000. The area is backed by mountains and rivers, and has convenient transportation. It is a famous "rice granary" on the Jinjiang Plain in South Korea, and Gongju City was designated as the national capital by King Wenmu of Baekje Kingdom in AD 475 until AD 538.

  The new capital of South Korea is a typical "small capital" with a planned population of only 500,000 people. Judging from the South Korean government's plan, the government's administrative organs will occupy an area of ​​more than 2.3 million square meters, and the presidential palace and the National Assembly will occupy an area of ​​about 2.3 million square meters. 330,000 square meters. The land area saved in this way is not only a "small capital", but also a "small government".

  The construction and relocation cost of South Korea's relocation of the capital is initially estimated at 38 billion US dollars. After the government moves to the "small capital", it will be committed to the economic development and cultural development of the central and eastern parts of South Korea. The Korean government believes that the image of a country cannot be maintained only by a big capital, large buildings, and large group gymnastics; the capital should not only reflect the atmosphere of "the world is great", as the first good district, the environment is elegant, the layout is comfortable, and the air is fresh. More in line with the word "first good". And the constant "bread-and-brick" and "stacked" expansion has only added chaos and cumbersomeness, rather than civilization and stalwartness.

  Washington, the capital of the United States, has a population of only about 800,000, but Washington's solemn, neat, elegant and restrained demeanor is unmatched by many "big capitals". Canberra, the capital of Australia, has a population of only 300,000, but it is a famous garden city in the world. Wellington, the capital of New Zealand, is also a "small capital", but it is world-renowned for its quietness and elegance.

  The "little capital" represented by Washington, Canberra, Wellington, and an unnamed location in the Yeongi-Gongju region of South Korea not only declares the cultural self-confidence of a country's government, but also truly puts people first and avoids the The negative effects of the "Giant Capital Syndrome" on the living environment also avoid the high operating costs of the "Giant Capital".

  The excessive bloat and exhaustion of the "big capital" has led to a re-examination of this geographically centralized structure. Proper division of labor among political centers, economic centers and cultural centers in different cities is not only an advanced concept of human geography, but also a metaphor for a modern political civilization.

  Since the end of World War II, more than 20 countries around the world have implemented their own capital relocation plans, and more than a dozen countries have proposed relocation motions.

  Data from South Korea's Ministry of Finance and Economy show that after the new administrative capital is completed, the capital Gyeonggi area can save 1.002 billion US dollars a year due to the reduction of expenses for improving traffic chaos and environmental pollution.

  According to the latest research report released by the Korea Development Institute of Korea, 513,000 of the new immigrants who will flow in after the new capital is completed will come from the Gyeonggi area, the capital of Seoul, and 138,000 from other parts of South Korea. . Land and housing prices in the Seoul area will drop by 1.5% and 1%, respectively. In addition, a report by the South Korean government predicts that the relocation of the capital will reduce the population of Seoul by 10% by 2020.

  The South Korean government said that the headquarters of South Korean industrial and financial giants will remain in Seoul, so Seoul will remain an international economic center, equivalent to New York's status in the United States.

  Since Seoul became the capital of the Republic of Korea in 1948, as the political, economic and cultural center of the country, it is in a pivotal position with a land area of ​​nearly 100,000 square kilometers and a population of about 48 million. However, the "unbalanced development strategy" has led to increasingly serious "urban diseases" in Seoul. The dense population, soaring land prices, traffic congestion and environmental pollution have become obstacles to the future development of this East Asian international city. In addition, with the strategic shift of the US military stationed in South Korea, especially the US military's southward withdrawal from the periphery of the capital to the central hinterland, Seoul, which is only 40 kilometers away from the northern military demarcation line, will lose its previous security protection. Therefore, the southward relocation of the capital is an important historic decision of the South Korean government from the perspective of military security.

  At present, the Yanqi-Gongju region of South Korea has shown a good momentum of economic development: population and capital have begun to flow in, and land prices have begun to soar. It is estimated that after the completion of the new capital, land and house prices in the Yeongi-Gongju area will increase by 8.5% and 5.7%, respectively. Although the government has banned the private sale of land in the planning area of ​​the new capital, in surrounding areas such as Yanqi County on the east side, house prices have soared by 60% compared to the same period last year.

  Many residents of Yanqi-Gongju area are very excited that their hometown is included in the new administrative capital planning area. After all, this means opportunities, economic development, and improvement of living standards and social status.

  But there are also many local farmers who say that while they are proud of their hometowns, they are also beginning to worry about the future. Because the land cultivated by many local farmers is rented, once the land is purchased by the state, the farmers who have cultivated the land all their lives will not only be forced to leave the hometown where their ancestors have lived for generations, but also have countless thoughts about how to make a living in the future. More farmers do not want to see their ancestral tombs that have been buried there for many years being forced to be relocated, so they set up a "special countermeasures committee" to oppose the relocation of the capital, but a new page in history is about to begin. The relocation of the capital in South Korea is an irresistible trend. What people can do It's just a countdown to the start of construction on the new capital with the government.


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