When we think about the sun's effect on Earth's climate, we usually think of solar radiation, and we are all too aware of the pain that UV radiation can cause to burn our skin. Although the sun powers life on Earth, potential dangers seem to be everywhere. The sun is an active star, constantly releasing what's called the "solar wind" -- charged particles, mostly composed of protons and electrons, that are ejected at hundreds of kilometers per second.
Some charged particles are guided into Earth's polar atmosphere by Earth's magnetic field, so we can see the mysterious and beautiful australis in the southern hemisphere, and the northern lights in the northern hemisphere. This manifestation of visible solar particles entering Earth's atmosphere is a symptomatic phenomenon. But it's not just light, the charged particles released by the sun have other effects as well.
Solar Particles and Earth Ozone
When solar particles enter the Earth's atmosphere, the high energy of the solar particles will ionize the neutral nitrogen and oxygen molecules in the Earth's atmosphere. These two molecules account for 99% of the Earth's atmosphere. Solar particles are also known as "high-energy particles". "Rainfall", so named because it resembles a rain of particles from space, is the main source of atmospheric ionization in the region more than 30 kilometers above Earth's polar poles, and it triggers a series of reactions that produce chemicals that promote ozone destruction.
It is reported that the impact of solar particles on ozone in the Earth's atmosphere was first observed in 1969. Since the beginning of the 21st century, based on new observation satellites that have been launched one after another, scientists have more and more evidence that solar particles are affecting the polar regions. Ozone plays an important role. During periods of particularly high solar activity, when the sun releases a flood of particles into space, as much as 60 percent of the ozone in regions above 50 kilometers above sea level is depleted, and the effects can last for several weeks.
In the lower Earth's atmosphere, about 50 kilometers below the Earth's surface, solar particles are an important contributor to year-to-year changes in polar ozone levels, and solar particle strikes will continue to cause ozone loss. However, a recent study has shown that solar particles also help curb further depletion of Antarctic ozone space.
How Ozone Affects Earth's Climate
Most of the ozone in the earth's atmosphere is located in a thin layer 20 to 25 kilometers away from the earth's surface - the "ozone layer", but ozone is everywhere in the atmosphere, from the earth's surface to 100 kilometers above sea level, it is a kind of greenhouse The gas, plays a key role in heating and cooling the atmosphere, which makes it vital to the climate system, and in the southern hemisphere, changes in polar ozone can affect regional climate conditions.
The depletion of ozone over Antarctica produces a cooling effect, which in turn promotes the westerly jet stream that surrounds Antarctica. As the Antarctic ozone hole gradually recovers, the westerly jet stream will meander further north, affecting rainfall patterns, ocean surface temperatures, and ocean currents, South Ring Model Describes the north-to-south movement of the wind belt around the Antarctic region.
Ozone is important for future climate predictions, not only in the thin ozone layer, but also in understanding the factors affecting ozone changes from across the atmosphere, whether anthropogenic or natural like the sun.
Direct Sun Effects The link between
solar particles and ozone is very clear, but what direct effects do solar particles have on climate? We have observational evidence that solar activity affects climate change in the polar regions of the Earth, and climate models also show that this polar effect is associated with larger climate patterns (such as northern and southern ring patterns) and affects geography in mid-latitudes.
The exact details of the Sun's impact on Earth are unknown, but for the first time the effects of solar particles on the climate system will be included in climate simulations for the upcoming Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment.
Through solar radiation and particle action, the sun provides a key energy input to our climate system. Although the Sun's magnetic field has an 11-year cycle, they cannot explain the recent rapid rise in global temperatures due to climate change.
We know that the increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are causing the Earth's surface temperature to rise (a climate trend known to physicists in the 19th century), and we also understand that human activity is contributing to increasing atmospheric greenhouse gases, both factors Taken together, they will explain the current rise in global temperatures we are observing.
How do solar particles affect clouds
Clouds are located at the lower end of the atmosphere, much lower than where most solar particles, known as interstellar rays, penetrate the atmosphere, and they may be closely related to cloud formation.
Experts once believed that cosmic rays could affect the form of condensation nuclei, which act as the "seeds" of clouds, but recent CERN research has shown that such effects are negligible and do not play a significant role in cloud formation . But the study doesn't rule out other mechanisms by which cosmic rays influence cloud formation, but so far no evidence has been found to support it.