Civilian drones change the world of air spirits

   For more than half a century, due to war and commercial needs, UAVs have achieved unprecedented development in both military and civilian fields, and have become the most popular technology "darling" nowadays, and are highly praised by countless people.

A century of history stems from war

  UAV is a general term for unmanned aerial vehicles, usually referred to as unmanned aircraft, and its English abbreviation is UAV. Autonomous operation is performed intermittently. From a technical point of view, UAVs can be divided into unmanned fixed-wing aircraft, unmanned vertical take-off and landing aircraft, unmanned airships, unmanned helicopters, unmanned multi-rotor aircraft, and unmanned paragliders. Compared with manned aircraft, UAV has the advantages of small size, low cost, convenient use, and low requirements for the flight environment.

  UAVs were originally designed and built primarily for military use, first appearing in the 1920s. In 1914, when World War I was in full swing, the British generals Cadel and Pitcher made a proposal to the British Military Aeronautical Society: to develop a small aircraft that is not piloted and controlled by radio, so that the It can fly over a certain target area of ​​the enemy and drop the bombs pre-loaded on the small aircraft. This bold vision was immediately appreciated by Sir Day Henderson, then president of the British Military Aeronautical Society. He appointed a team led by Professor AM Luo to develop it. At the time, drones were used as training targets. Since then, the application of UAVs in the military field has become increasingly popular.

Industry applications are even more powerful

  In addition to military use, drones are also increasingly playing an increasingly larger role in the civilian sector. Civilian drones started in the 1980s, which is much shorter than the century-old history of military drones. In addition to personal entertainment, "drone + industry application" is a real need. In terms of civilian use, in recent years, my country's UAV technology has taken the lead in the world.

  In July 2021, a huge flood occurred in Henan, and the rescue in the disaster area was urgent. my country's large-scale disaster relief drone "Wing Loong-2H" was dispatched urgently and performed well. During the disaster relief process, the communication of many villages in Mihe Town, Gongyi City was interrupted. The Emergency Management Department urgently dispatched the UAV air emergency communication platform, which lasted 4.5 hours for a long-distance cross-regional flight to reach the communication interruption area. The public network base station has achieved about 5 hours of stable continuous mobile signal coverage within a range of about 50 square kilometers, opening up the lifeline of emergency communication support. Netizens shouted: "This is China's speed!

  " When rescue cannot be carried out due to reasons, drones can quickly transport emergency items such as medicines, blood, and escape materials, quickly carry out efficient germ killing operations on the air and surface of the disaster area, and enter the disaster area for reconnaissance and detection anytime, anywhere. In addition, the drone can also be mounted with searchlights to help search and rescue personnel find victims waiting for rescue in the dark, or conduct survey operations in a high temperature and high humidity environment near the fire site, which can survey the fire and trapped people. Fire search and rescue provides real-time on-site information and strives for the best rescue opportunity.

  Aerial drones are the most common type of civilian drones. Today, drones specially used for aerial photography can achieve "360° shooting without dead angle", and are playing an increasingly important role in event recording, news reporting and promotional video production. High-performance aerial photography drones have begun to replace the role of aerial photography helicopters in providing stable and efficient image quality. There are many successful cases of using drones in the film and television production industry, whether it is the variety show "Where Are We Going Dad?", or the classic blockbuster "Harry Potter" series, "007: Skyfall", "Transformers 4", etc. , there are drones behind the scenes. Aerial photography documentaries, such as "Aerial Photography China", which have emerged since 2012, have made the application of aerial photography drones recognized by people.

  Drones can not only be used to record wonderful moments, but hundreds of drones can form a dynamic three-dimensional performance by themselves. Through programming, the drone formation can achieve the effect of "not fireworks, but better than fireworks". On the evening of June 30, 2021, 1,000 drones completed a magnificent light show in Guangzhou. The first scene of the performance is the memorial hall of the three meeting sites of the Communist Party of China in Guangzhou composed of drones; then, the Bauhinia flag and the lotus flag appear in the sky, symbolizing the return of Hong Kong in 1997 and the return of Macau in 1999; then the Beijing Bird's Nest and the "five rings" pattern , Shenzhou No. 12 manned spacecraft and the "July 1st Medal" pattern; the last is the dazzling number "100" pattern, which reproduces the century-old struggle of the Chinese Communist Party, and offers blessings for the party's centennial birthday, stunning the night sky in Guangzhou.

  In addition to aerial photography and performances, my country's drones have also made outstanding contributions to plant protection. In August last year, Beijing launched UAV flight defense and specialized unified defense operations for rice, corn and cherries in the west of Beijing. This flight defense not only used biological agents, but also used drones to release natural enemy insects for the first time—the waterproof honeycombs with egg cards were evenly placed on the points. Agricultural plant protection drones fly 1.5 to 2 meters above the crops, relying on the propeller to press down the wind field for drug spraying, which is almost unaffected by the terrain and does not need to reserve channels, which can not only greatly improve the application The efficiency of medicine can be reduced, the dosage of medicine can be reduced, and the utilization rate of medicine can be improved.

  Drones can also help conservation workers restore wetlands, the "kidneys of the planet". In March 2021, a company in Shanghai used DJI plant protection drones to successfully scatter 12 million sea triangular thorn grass seed pellets near the seawall of Baisha Bay in Pinghu City, Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province, to help restore wetlands. The coastal wetlands have a large area of ​​tidal flats. If artificial sowing is used, firstly, the efficiency is low and the pressure is not enough, and the sown seeds are easily washed away by the tide; secondly, it is inconvenient to walk manually, and it is easy to leave footprints. UAVs can be used for fixed-point and regular sowing, accurately "shooting" grass seeds into the mudflat surface, saving at least 50 times of manpower. After 5 months of planting with drones, an ecological landscape belt with beautiful shores and green beaches has been formed on the coastline here.

  Drones have also played a significant role in the inspection of aviation oil pipelines and the operation and maintenance of power transmission lines. In June 2021, according to the planned route, a drone will perform a refined inspection mission at the 220 kV Old Mancheng Substation of the State Grid Urumqi Power Supply Company. The flight waypoints cover more than 100 outdoor equipment including circuit breakers, isolating switches, voltage transformers, current transformers, transformers, wall bushings, insulators, lightning rods and gantry frames. In the past, it took an operator 4.5 hours to complete the inspection of a 220 kV substation; now, the inspection time is shortened to tens of minutes by using drones to inspect autonomously. The UAV autonomous inspection of the substation has replaced the manual inspection with a rate of 79%, which greatly improves the inspection efficiency.

  Using drones for surveying and mapping is not only simple to operate, but also greatly saves manpower and material resources, and improves the effect of surveying and mapping. In March 2021, the Guangxi Yulin City Natural Resources Planning, Surveying and Mapping Information Institute completed a rural "real estate integration" real estate right confirmation and registration work with the help of drones in about a week. household measurement, the time was shortened by more than 20 days. Using the two technologies of UAV oblique photogrammetry and lidar aerial measurement, detailed information such as the area, building area, height, surrounding topography and geographic coordinates of rural housing can be quickly obtained.

  UAV mapping can not only perform geographic mapping, but also simulate "reconstruction" of ancient buildings. In March 2021, DJI cooperated with the team of Academician Zhang Zuxun of Wuhan University to build a high-precision 3D model of the Hanging Temple in Datong, Shanxi. The main body of the Hanging Temple is built ingeniously by using the concave and convex parts of the cliffs, and its breathtaking geographical location is a huge challenge to the three-dimensional modeling of the temple. The 3D model reconstructed by the drone can accurately restore the scattered changes in the building, ranging from a landslide to a broken piece of wood in the building, which can be clearly reproduced. UAV aerial surveys can not only provide targeted restoration evidence, but also assist in the digitization of cultural relics and monuments, and promote the research, analysis and protection of cultural relics.

drone delivery package

  Drones are more familiar to more people, or during the epidemic. Through short videos, people saw drones provide aerial anti-epidemic shout-out services for street community epidemic prevention, helping street communities "zero-distance scientific anti-epidemic". In July 2021, street community staff in Nanjing City, Jiangsu Province shouted to the residents through the loudspeaker carried by the drone, reminding the majority of residents to cooperate with the epidemic prevention work. Compared with standing on the ground and shouting with a loudspeaker, the air has a wider range of transmission and a louder sound, which can better play a role in epidemic prevention publicity.

  The police will also use drones to crack down on illegal crimes. In terms of drug control, some technology companies in my country have released a drone-borne multispectral poppy inspection system, which can effectively identify poppy plants in the jointing, budding, flowering and fruiting stages, with a time span of about 40 days. In June 2021, the police from the Anti-drug Brigade of Banma County Public Security Bureau, Guoluo Prefecture, Qinghai, used drones to conduct a comprehensive inspection of the illegal cultivation of opium poppy, marijuana and other original drug plants in the gardens, immigration areas, abandoned courtyards and other parts of the district. A total of more than 80 wild poppies were eradicated to ensure that no dead ends were left. In July 2021, law enforcement officers from the Longshan Institute of the Cixi Branch of the Ningbo Ecological Environment Bureau, Zhejiang Province used drones to photograph the illegal pollution discharge sites hidden in a large area of ​​farmland, and locked the workshop employees who escaped under the cover of the complex environment. Also in March of this year, the Shushan Branch of the Public Security Bureau of Hefei City, Anhui Province cleverly used drone reconnaissance to successfully wipe out the mobile gambling dens hidden in the wilderness.

Put an end to "black flying" and law-abiding flying

  As drones play an important role in all walks of life, incidents such as "black flying" drones interfering with aviation order and spying on other people's privacy also occur frequently, posing a serious challenge to the security and security management of important areas. . Some drones can be turned into new weapons of mass destruction at any time after carrying dangerous accessories, and they have to be guarded against. In December 2019, a drone in Hebei took a photo of "Black Fly", which was found to be an abnormal air policeman by radar monitoring. In February 2021, a civilian aerial photography drone in Chongqing collided with a train on Rail Transit Line 2, causing the train to brake and stop.

  At present, the behavior of flying drones in the control area without filing and approval, the height of the flying area exceeding 120 meters, or the unconnected flight of drones is considered as "black flying". In my country, any flight without a license from the Civil Aviation Administration of China is not allowed. However, in response to the increasing popularity of UAVs and the fact that the utilization rate is increasing, the Aircraft Airworthiness Certification Department of the Civil Aviation Administration of China has issued the "Regulations on the Administration of Real-Name Registration of Civil Unmanned Aircraft", specifying that the maximum take-off weight is 250 grams ( UAVs including 250 grams) need to complete real-name registration on the designated website, and they can fly in non-no-fly areas after registration. At present, some provinces and cities in my country are also actively opening up low-altitude airspace, building drone test flight bases, and providing flying places for drones and other aircraft.

  The drone industry is one of the most high-profile technology industries in the 21st century. It requires technological innovation as support, and requires every drone user to strictly abide by policies and regulations, and provide cooperation and support. With the strong development momentum of my country's drone industry, it is expected to continue to lead the global competition and achieve sustainable growth.



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