Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone microstructure, which can lead to bone fragility and increased risk of fractures. In recent years, osteoporosis has become a metabolic bone disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Menopause, aging, and low levels of physical activity are all high-risk factors for osteoporosis. And there is a lot of evidence that exercise can prevent bone loss, decline in physical fitness, and reduce the risk of falls. Therefore, whether it is to prevent or treat osteoporosis, "exercise prescription" is indispensable.
However, exercise mainly relies on bones and muscles. For a special group of osteoporosis patients, whether it is exercise mode, exercise intensity, or even the number and time of exercise, are different from other groups. Therefore, before formulating an exercise prescription, you must ask a professional doctor to conduct an assessment, including whether there are exercise contraindications, the body’s ability to bear the exercise load and physical fitness, etc., and then formulate the exercise purpose, item, intensity, time, The detailed arrangement of frequency, and inspection and correction during the implementation process, to ensure the effect of the exercise.
Humans gradually age from about 40 years old, and bone mass gradually declines, especially in women after menopause. The main effect of physical exercise on the decreased bone density during aging is that the effect of delaying bone loss is higher than the effect of rapid bone loss caused by changes in physiological conditions in the body. Therefore, appropriate exercise can make the human body obtain a higher peak bone mass in youth, and can effectively avoid or slow down bone loss in old age. Exercise is of great significance to maintaining the physiological strength of bones throughout the life of a person, and is one of the basic methods to prevent and treat osteoporosis.
For patients with better balance function and low risk of falling, training focusing on strength, flexibility, and balance can be performed. For patients with severe pain or balance disorders, physical therapy and low-intensity daily activities can be used.
Flexibility training: With age, the flexibility of the joints is relatively weakened, especially the stretching of the spine. Patients with osteoporosis may cause tension in the front chest muscles due to thoracic kyphosis. You can use the door frames and corners of your home to stretch your chest muscles, or you can use a towel roll or foam roller to put it behind your back along the vertical direction of the spine, hold your head in your hands and take a supine position for stretching exercises.
Strength intensive training: The muscle strength of middle-aged and elderly people decreases by 15% every 10 years after the age of 50, and 30% after the age of 70. Therefore, we need to strengthen the strength and stability of the core muscles.
The first is grip strength training. Daily adherence to moderate grip strength training can prevent osteoporosis of the distal radius and proximal humerus, and is suitable for middle-aged and elderly patients with osteoporosis.
The second is stretching or isometric exercises. The greatest effect of this exercise is to increase muscle strength and endurance, thereby increasing the stress load on the relevant parts, improving blood circulation and increasing bone density. Commonly used methods are: abduction of upper limbs isometric contraction, 1 to 2 times a day, used to prevent and treat osteoporosis of the humerus and radius. Isometric contraction of the lower limbs, once a day, is used to prevent osteoporosis of the proximal femur. Trunk extensor hyperextension isometric exercise training can be performed in a standing or lying position to enhance the muscle strength of the trunk extensors, gluteus maximus and waist extensors, 3 times a week, 10-30 minutes each time. For patients with severe osteoporosis, in order to avoid causing pain, you can train in the sitting position. At the same time, do less flexion exercises, especially in patients with spine osteoporosis.
Balance function training: Balance function requires vision, vestibular sense, proprioception, adequate musculoskeletal strength, flexibility and other abilities. There are many ways to balance training, such as standing on one leg, walking backwards in a straight line, or standing on a soft cushion for throwing and catching activities.
Using heart rate to control the amount of exercise is a simple and safe method. Generally, the ideal exercise heart rate for the elderly is 60% to 80% of the maximum heart rate. Maximum heart rate = 220-age.
The frequency, duration and exercise method of exercise vary from person to person. Gradual progress is emphasized. Generally, it is advisable to be able to tolerate it without fatigue, and the pulse change before and after exercise should not exceed 30 times. It is usually recommended to exercise 3 to 5 days a week for 20 to 60 minutes each time.
It should be noted that you must do enough preparation activities before exercise. After exercise, you should not sit down and turn into a quiet state, and you must relax fully.