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A journey through heaven and earth

 Super subway passing through the center of the earth


  In the movie "Total Memories", a 13,000-kilometer-long "fall road" passes through the center of the earth. Passengers can get on the train and reach the other end of the earth in 17 minutes. This is really a shocking idea. You know, it takes 22 hours for a plane to fly to the other end of the earth, because it flies an arc along the sphere, and "falling into the road" is a model of shortcuts. In fact, falling into the road does not violate any existing laws of physics. Of course, there are countless engineering problems waiting for scientists to solve in order to be truly realized.

  Suppose the "fall road" is really built, and you jump in from an entrance, what will happen? It depends on which two places on the earth's surface are connected by the "fall road". If it is the north and south poles, gravity will accelerate you continuously, and in just 13 minutes, you will enter the center of the earth at a speed of 35,000 kilometers per hour. At the center of the earth, you will be in a state of weightlessness as an astronaut in space, because at this time you receive equal pull from all directions of the earth. Once you cross the center of the earth, your speed will slow down until you reach the other end of the earth steadily. The whole process only takes 37 minutes.

  Why should it be emphasized that it is the "fall road" connecting the north and south poles? This is because the "falling road" connecting other locations will be affected by the Coriolis effect. The earth keeps spinning. After you jump off the "falling road", you will soon hit the wall of the "falling road" because of the rotation of the earth. Of course, it is easy to overcome this, as in the movie "Total Recall", using additional power to offset the Coriolis effect.



The city in the movie "Total Memories"


Wormholes connecting distant galaxies


The earth leaves its orbit in science fiction movies

Cross the interstellar through a wormhole


  In the movie "Interstellar Crossing", passing through the wormhole enables the protagonist Cooper and others to reach a distant and unfamiliar galaxy in a very short time.

  So what is a wormhole? Why does it have such a wonderful effect? In 1935, physicists Einstein and Nathan Rosen proposed a concept of a channel connecting two black holes-the Einstein-Rosen bridge, based on general relativity.

  In 1955, when American physicist John Wheeler was studying the mathematical model of Einstein-Rosen Bridge, he proved that it is possible to connect two different regions in the universe. Wheeler believes that the Einstein-Rosen Bridge is not like a bridge, but more like a hole left by a bug biting through an apple. An ant has two choices from one end of the apple to the other. One is to crawl around the curved surface of the apple, and the other is to bite through the apple and drill through. Obviously the latter is harder but faster. Imagine that in a higher latitude space, if the three-dimensional space-time we are in is curved like an apple peel, then the "wormhole" passing through the high-dimensional space entity will inevitably allow us to move faster in the three-dimensional space. Between the two points in, the term "wormhole" that has swept the world was born.

  In 1987, Kip Thorne, a theoretical physicist at the California Institute of Technology, together with two of his graduate students, proved that a wormhole can be opened, but it requires enough material with negative energy. What is negative energy? Quantum fluctuations in vacuum have energy. If the energy of a substance is lower than the energy of quantum fluctuations in the surrounding space, it is said that the substance has negative energy.

  Unfortunately, the negative energy created in this way is too insignificant to be used to keep the wormhole open. In fact, maintaining the opening of a wormhole requires a huge amount of negative energy, the total amount of which is almost equal to the total energy released by an ordinary star in a year. So far, wormholes are still beautiful legends written on paper.

The planet is the spacecraft



  In the sci-fi movie "The Wandering Earth", when the sun suddenly ages and helium flashes may occur at any time, mankind is united and decided to use the entire earth as a spacecraft to escape to Proxima. You know, whether it is to stop the rotation of the earth, leave its original orbit, or let the earth fly out of the solar system, the strongest power is needed.

  Under the leadership of the coalition government, mankind made every effort to build more than 10,000 planetary engines on the Eurasian continent, and built dozens of more powerful steering engines on the equator. The energy of these 11-kilometer-high, 20-30-kilometer-diameter engines comes from "refusion." The "refusion" here means that under extreme high temperature and pressure, heavy elements can also undergo nuclear fusion.

  The most abundant elements in the earth's crust are oxygen and silicon, accounting for 49% and 26%, respectively. With the refusion technology, humans can throw the dug out stones into the engine into energy, and use energy to push the earth. Each planetary engine produces 150 trillion tons of thrust, and more than 10,000 planetary engines are enough to propel the earth to the third cosmic speed in about 5 years-16.7 km/s, which is the lowest speed from the sun's gravity.

  The mass-energy conversion efficiency of refusion is extremely high, and the output energy is huge, but the earth is really too big and heavy. The most optimistic estimate is that for the earth to reach the third cosmic speed, billions of tons of stone must be burned, which is equivalent to digging 40 meters of the world's ground as fuel. When the 2500-year voyage is over, how much of the earth will be left when it enters Proxima’s orbit?

  Although judging from the current technical conditions, "falling road", "wormhole", and "planetary spacecraft" are all bold imaginations in science fiction movies, which cannot be truly realized. But in the future, with the advancement of science and technology, they may also become a reality. You know, no one believed that humans could make aircraft that are much heavier than air.

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